Graphene-based Polymer Nano-composites - A Review

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Maragheh, Maragheh Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TUV), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran

10.22075/macs.2020.16553.1182

Abstract

These days, different types of carbon nano-fillers are used widely as a reinforcement agent in polymer composites like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-platelets, and graphite platelets. Moreover, graphene-based materials and their composites have shown promising characteristics for a wide variety of applications in nano-science and nano technology.  Adding graphene as a reinforcing agent in a polymer matrix has improved the overall performance and properties of these substances. In this review, the general properties of the nano-particle in polymers have been studied. Also, the effect of these nano particles on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical prope rties of polymer composites has been investigated. It was demonstrated that filling graphene platelets in polymer materials improves their mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties.

Keywords


 

Graphene-based Polymer Nano-composites - A Review

F. Azimpour Shishevan a, ­­B. Abazadeh b,*

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Maragheh, Maragheh Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TUV), Tehran, Iran

b Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran

 

 

Keywords

 

ABSTRACT

Graphene

Polymer

Nano-composites

These days, different types of carbon nano-fillers are used widely as a reinforcement agent in polymer composites like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-platelets, and graphite platelets. Moreover, graphene-based materials and their composites have shown promising characteristics for a wide variety of applications in nano-science and nano technology.  Adding graphene as a reinforcing agent in a polymer matrix has improved the overall performance and properties of these substances. In this review, the general properties of the nano-particle in polymers have been studied. Also, the effect of these nano particles on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical prope rties of polymer composites has been investigated. It was demonstrated that filling graphene platelets in polymer materials improves their mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties.

 

Contents

1. Introduction

2. General properties of graphene nano-plateletes

3. Synthesizing of graphene

4. Intercalation and exfoliation of graphene in polymers

5. Effect of graphene on thermal properties of the polymer nano-composite

6. Effect of graphene on mechanical properties of the polymer nano-composite

7. Effect of graphene on electrical properties of the polymer nano-composite

8. Conclusion

  1. Introduction

Recent researches in the field of polymer nano-composites (PNCs) have focused on the modification of  nano-structured materials to improve their characteristics  such as electrical, electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical properties [1-5] The discovery of graphene by the exfoliation of graphite has drawn enormous attention due to its unique properties [6-8]. Graphene is a 2D structure of carbon atoms with a hexagonal crystalline structure with sp2 bonds. It has a high surface area (highest, adsorption and surface reactions), electron mobility, thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. With the highest surface area compared to any other material of this kind, it enhances the interaction between the sheets and polymer material [2018]. The superior properties of graphene compared to polymers are also reflected in polymer/graphene nano-composites. Polymer/graphene nano-composites show superior mechanical, thermal, gas barrier, electrical, and flame retardant properties [12-14].

This article ectensively reviews the various investigations about the synthesis of graphene nano-platelets and the effect of these nano-particles on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers.

  1. General Properties of Graphene Nano-plateletes

Graphene is the thinnest two-dimensional atomic substance. It is a fundamental building block for 0D fullerenes [15-17], 1D carbon nanotubes [18-21], and 3D graphites [22-24]. This extaordinary compound is known as the thinnest and strongest ever measured material in the universe. It is a 2D structure of carbon atoms with a hexagonal crystalline structure with sp2 bonds, that holds unusual properties such as remarkable mechanical [25-29], thermal [30, 31], structural [32-34], and electrical [35-39] properties and also strong nano-filler-matrix adhesions [40, 41] that lead to strong mechanical strength [42-44]. These distinguished properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate to be used in the formation of polymer/graphene nano-composites (see Fig. 1).

 Since its discovery in 2004 by Geim as a new allotrope of carbon, graphene has drawn a lot of attention from both theoretical and experimental scientists [11] because of its exceptional properties, such as high porosity [46], excellent electron mobility [47,48], heat resistance [49] and high thermal conductivity of∼5000 W m−1K−1 [50,51], that is comparable to current carbon nanotubes [52-55] and high optical transparency (97% Optical transmission) [56-60].

Moreover, monolayer graphene has a strength of about 200 times greater than steel which makes it the most durable material ever tested [61] and also has Young's modulus of about 1.0 TPa [62-65], and strength of 130 GPa [65] making it a promising reinforcing phase for ultra-strong structural composite materials [67]. Thus, the tensile strength of graphene is similar or slightly higher than CNT, but much higher than steel, kevlar, and natural rubber [68-70].

 The theoretical surface area of graphene without overlap of sheets attains about 2630 m2/g with a layer thickness range of 0.35 to 1nm [71]. Although, in real and experimental systems, the observed layer surface is smaller due to the occurrence of overlap of the exfoliated sheets. In addition, graphene has a relatively high thermal conductivity in comparison with other materials. At the same time, the electrical conductivity of graphene is higher than most engineering materials except for steel [72, 73]. The considerable surface area of the graphene sheet provides a significant advantage in improving the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the resultant composite [74, 75]. Due to all these reasons, graphene projects are rapidly rising on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics [76, 77].

Furthermore, graphene can be produced by exfoliation of graphite or its derivatives, such as graphen oxide (GO) [78]. The advantage of this approach is that it enables high yield production, and hence, it is a cost-effective and scalable process [72]. Therefore, this material is suitable for the production of polymer/graphene nano-composites. Graphene sheets are starting to play the role of an alternative to CNTs for preparing multifunctional polymer nano-composites, due to their high specific surface area, high aspect ratio, and layered structure [79].

Nowadays, the interest in nanoparticles such as graphene is being broadened considerably, regarding its’ other interesting physical properties such as high levels of thermal conductivity [80], stiffness, and strength [81], and being coupled resulting in impermeability to gases [82]. It is proved that graphene and graphene-derived layered materials are also potential candidates for gas barrier membranes [83]. Also, according to recent studies, the production costs of graphene in large quantities are much lower than carbon nanotubes [84, 85]. The price of natural crystalline graphite is quite low, around 1.5$/lb, and the cost of exfoliated graphite nano-platelets is about 5$/lb or less [86]. These prices are significantly less than CNTs (100$/g) [87].

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of graphene, as the fundamental starting material for a variety of fullerene materials such as buck balls, carbon nanotubes, and graphite [45].

Thus far, graphene based nano-composites have been explored in a myriad of fields, including nano-electronics [79, 88, 89], intercalation materials, drug delivery systems [90] and catalysis. It has also shown potential applications in many technological fields, such as, single molecule sensors [91-94], biosensors [95,96], electrochemical sensors [97], molecular sensors [98,99], batteries [100-104], liquids crystal displays [105], light emitting devices [106], nano-composites [107-109], high frequency analog electronics [110], supercapacitors [63,111], optoelectronic devices [112], solar cells, transparent and flexible electrodes for displays [95,113,114] hydrogen [115] and energy storage devices [116]. Additionally, incorporating graphene sheets in a composite material is one of the practical methods to exploit their enhanced properties for real-world applications [77]. Substantial property enhancements of Polymer nano-composites in comparison with polymer composites with conventional micron-scale fillers (such as glass or carbon fibers) have been observed and have led to higher loading tolerating capacities, which ultimately result in a lower component weight [117].

Also, graphene can be used as an additive to delay the flammability of polymers due to its unique two-dimensional atomic carbon sheet structure [118-120]. The nano-filler network structure of graphene increases the heat transfer to the surrounding environment and thus retards the flame [121,122].

  1. Synthesis of Graphene

Four different methods have been used to synthesis graphen [123]. The first method (which can be used for the preparation of graphene nano-platelet) is micromechanical exfoliation of graphite, which is also known as the ‘scotch tape’ or ‘peel-off’ method  [124,125]; the second method is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or thermal, chemical decomposition of graphitic materials [126,127]. Epitaxial growth on electrically insulating surfaces or electrostatic deposition of graphene [128] is known as the third method. And finally, the fourth method is the solution-based reduction of graphene oxide or chemical exfoliation [129-131].

The chemical exfoliation of graphite is the typical process for the bulk synthesis of graphene, in which graphite is oxidized to graphite oxide by oxidation with K2Cr2O7 [132], KMnO4 [132], and KClO3 [134]. Furthermore, interest in the chemical synthesis of graphene nano-sheets is increasing due to the mass production of graphene nano-sheets and facile functionalization through oxygen (containing functional groups) [135,136]. The synthesis of graphene nano-sheets makes the graphene nano-sheets capable of being used in the areas of hybrid nano-composites, which shows promising applications in high capacity storage materials, and especially electronic devices such as batteries [137,138]. This method, which was initially developed by Stankovich [139], has been used to fabricate solution-processable functionalized graphene in two stages:

1- Water-soluble graphite oxide (GO) was prepared from graphite using the Hummers method [60] and dispersed in water with appropriate sonication to yield a dispersion containing mainly individual graphene sheets.

2- The exfoliated GO was reacted with an alkyl-amine to obtain a solution-processable functionalized graphene.

On the other hand, exfoliation of graphite or its derivatives, such as GO is an alternative method for producing graphene that is used nowadays [78]. Generally, these methods are suitable for large-scale production for polymer composite applications. Usually, the Staudenmaier [111,140] or Hummers [141] methods use different variations for production of GO where graphite is oxidized using strong oxidants such as KMnO4, KClO3, and NaNO2 in the presence of nitric acid or its mixture with sulfuric acid.

Also, graphene sheets can be attained by graphite exfoliation, including mechanical cleavage of graphite [142-145], chemical exfoliation of graphite [104,146], thermal-induced exfoliation [147], and direct synthesis, such as epitaxial growth and bottom-up organic synthesis (see Fig. 2) [148]. In terms of the yield and production cost of graphene, the solution phase preparation technique has gained the most attention in recent years [149].

3.1. Characterization of graphene nano-platelets

One of the main problems in graphene related research is the difficulty of accurate counting of the atomic layers in samples obtained by either mechanical exfoliation from bulk graphite or grown by other means [112]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) may not identify the number of graphene layers individually, where there are other alternatives, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A significant disadvantage of these tests is the lengthy   preparation process of the involved experimental samples. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test method has also been used for the characterization of the structure of nano-composites [150]. Recently micro-Raman spectroscopy has become a conventional technique for the identification and characterization of graphene layers [151-153]. Since, the Raman spectrum of graphene is very sensitive to the number of atomic layers and the existence of disorders or defects, which allows for better graphene characterization.

  1. Intercalation and exfoliation of graphene in polymers

The intercalation of graphite increases its interlayer spacing, weakening the interlayer interactions, and facilitating the exfoliation of the graphite intercalation compounds by mechanical or thermal methods [104]. Dispersion of graphene nano-sheets in to the polymer hosts is a challenge in the development of high-performance graphene-based nano-composites due to the strong interlayer cohesive energy and surface inertia [154,155]. Also, graphene nano-particles are highly hydrophobic, and thus, it is challenging to disperse them in solvents [156,157]. These subjects limit the application of pure graphene sheets in nano-composites. To improve the dispersibility of graphene in the matrix, both the surface modification and in situ polymerization approach have been tried [158,159] (see Fig. 3). Furthermore, expanding the application of graphene between graphene sheets and aromatic organic molecules has been carried out based on π-stacking [130, 97], which could improve its solubility [160]. Recently, it has been found that the functionalization of graphene with a polymer is an efficient method to enhance its dispersibility and solubility in the aqueous solvent [161]. Furthermore, the insolubility and re-aggregation tendency limiting the manipulation and processing of graphene results in the non-uniform dispersion of graphene in the polymer matrix. Much effort has been dedicated to the chemical functionalization of graphene to improve the solubility and compatibility with polymers by changing its surface properties [162,163]. Graphene platelets, in their intact form, are characterized by low surface energy, and therefore, poorly wetted by most polymer matrices. Consequently, the dispersion is often poor and leads to reduced mechanical properties of the composite [151]. In most cases, conventional organic modification of graphene sheets improves their dispersion in the polymer matrix [164, 165]. The melt rheological property also provides a convenient way to evaluate the dispersion state of the nano-fillers in the polymer matrix [14].

Additionally, the final properties of the graphene reinforced polymer nanocomposites are dictated by interfacial bonding between graphene and the host polymer [166].

 

 

 

 

Fig. 2. Schematic picture of graphite expansion and functionalization process [148].

 

 

 

Fig. 3. Schematic figure of three morphological states (originally suggested for layered silicate fillers) (a) phase separated, (b) intercalated, (c) exfoliated [158].

Pristine graphene is not compatible with organic polymers and does not form homogeneous composites. Hence, it is difficult to obtain an acceptible dispersion of graphene in polymer matrices. Instead of using pure graphene, the functionalization of graphene (FG) is one of the most common methods to solve the problem [167]. The functionalized groups enable graphene to disperse uniformly and interact with polymer chains producing strong interfacial adhesion [168]. Oxidization is a typical way to functionalize graphene, which is denoted as GO. GO consists of graphene lattices that are chemically functionalized with hydroxyl, carbonyl, and epoxide groups [169]. This additional carbonyl and carboxyl groups take place at the edge of the sheets and make graphene oxide sheets, strongly hydrophilic, allowing them to swell and disperse in water [170].

  1. Effect of graphene on thermal properties of polymer nano-composite

As electronic products continue to move toward miniaturization and high-performance, one of the critical challenges is dramatically increasing energy dissipation [115] (see Fig. 4). If this problemis not solved, the energy dissipated in the form of heat will significantly reduce the speed of development of new technologies. Recently, for this purpose, thermal interface materials have been used. These materials have been applied to connect different thermal elements to ensure efficient transfer of heat. They can be inserted between a chip and a heat sink or between a heat sink and a heat spreader in the electronic device [171]. Graphene-filled polymers are considered to be up-and-coming candidates for high performance thermal interface materials and expected to solve the challenge of increasing heat dissipation from electronic devices (see Table. 1 for some instances). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of nano-composites has been found to increase by filling graphene nano-platelets [182]. In addition, increasing the number of filled graphene, results in the decrease of Tg due to the agglomeration of graphene nano-particles. The introduction of filler components into organic polymers can improve their thermal degradation stability; in other words, graphene adds thermal stability [170,183] to nano-composites because of the thermal isolation effect of the graphene sheets and the mass transport barrier that they provide to the volatile products which are generated during thermal decomposition [184]. The test results indicated that the inclusion of graphene into composites resulted in low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) [182], and increasing graphene fraction reduced CTEs significantly [112,185]. Some computational results suggested that in-plane expansion, bond stretching, and bond bending effects in the graphene sheets counteract each other out, leading to a negative thermal expansion coefficient in the plane graphene sheets below the temperature of 470 K [166,186]. Due to its planar structure, thermal contraction in graphene sheets was more evident than other carbon structures, such as graphite, carbon nanotubes and, diamond [150,166].

The preliminary measurement of thermal conductivity also indicated that graphene composites significantly improved the thermal conductivity of the polymer matrix [77].

Moreover, since the shrinkage of resin below the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases linearly with reduction of temperature; thus, the difference between the operating temperature and Tg is significant. The magnitude of the resulting internal residual stresses depends on Tg, CTE, and the elastic modulus of the resin, as well as the curing conditions and the degree of dimensional constraint in the forming process [150].

  1. Effect of graphene on mechanical properties of polymer nano-composites

To enhance the mechanical properties of polymeric nano-composites, substances such as carbon nano-tubes, intercalated clay, graphene, and graphene oxide are added as high-performance reinforcing nano-fillers [65]. The mechanical properties of composites depend not only on the dispersion and mechanical properties of the nano-filler in the polymer but also on the features of the polymer–particle interface [187]. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the enhanced mechanical performance of the polymer nano-composites depends on the inherent properties of the nano-filler and also, more importantly, depends on the nature of the bonding at the interface and the mechanical load transfer capability from the matrix to the nano-fiber [40].

 

 

Fig. 4. Schematic representation of thermal exfoliation of graphene [165].

 

 

 

As a result, the superiority of graphene platelets in terms of mechanical properties enhancement may be related to their high specific surface area, enhanced nano-filler matrix adhesion/interlocking arising from their wrinkled (rough) surface, as well as the two-dimensional (planar) geometry of graphene platelets [188]. furthermore, the maximum strength of nano-composites increases with the addition of graphene up to a critical graphene loading point, and then decreases above that critical content [189]. A similar trend is observed for the initial modulus. This phenomenon occurred mainly because of the agglomeration of graphene sheets above the critical graphene loading, as previously described. Also, the improvements in the tensile mechanical properties depend on the interactions between the polymer molecules and the layered graphene, as well as on the rigidity of the graphene sheets [190-192]. Moreover, the enhancement of the toughness of thermosetting materials by the incorporation of graphene has been studied [78]. Thermosetting materials are generally cured with high crosslink density to attain excellent mechanical properties. However, it almost always achieves weak fracture resistance [193]. The conclusion may review the main points of the author’s work. Also, it could include the application of the proposed method and suggestion for future research. The percentage of improvements in tensile strength and tensile modulus are shown in Fig. 5. The maximum improvement in tensile strength is as high as 108% [194] and in the tensile modulus up to 103% [195].

  1. Effect of graphene on electrical properties of polymer nano-composites

Recently, graphene nano-sheets, as a new kind of carbon material, have captured much attention due to their excellent electronic conductivity [108, 206, 207], and their very high electron mobility [208,209]. Because of this high conductivity and electro-catalytic activity, graphene is an ideal material for the preparation of electrochemical sensors and biosensors [210-213]. Furthermore, these sheets have attracted enormous attention due to their potential application in liquid crystal and nano-electronic devices, as well as in super-capacitors and field emitters [214]. This nano-particle is superior to other conventional carbon materials due to the ease of synthesis, cost-effectiveness, remarkable mechanical stiffness and, large surface area [215]. This nano-particle and its derivative, graphene oxide (GO), have been substantively used as the main framework for dispersing or building nano-architectures because of their desireable properties in electronics and catalysis [132]. It is extremely promising for graphene to become the nano-scale building block of new nano-composites because of its unusual nano-structure and extraordinary electronic properties [216,217]. Also, a nano-composite of graphene/MnO2 nano-platelets has been prepared as high lithium capacity electrical batteries. The superior lithium storage capability can be attributed to the open structure: the large effective surface area and short diffusion paths [218].

 

Table 1. A brief record of graphite and/or graphene-based nanocomposites studied for improvement in thermal conductivity values.

No.

Authors, Year

Reinforcement (wt %)

Dispersion

method

 

% Increase in thermal

conductivity

 

 

Remarks

Ref.

1

Kandare et al. 2015

GnP (1.9 wt %)

Sn

9

The simultaneous inclusion of GnPs and SnP/SnW at a combined loading of 1 vol % resulted in about 40% enhancement in the through-thickness thermal conductivity, while the inclusion of GnP at the same loading resulted in only 9% improvement. A higher increment with simultaneous addition of GnP and SnP/SnW can be attributed to synergistic effects.

[172]

SnP/(0.09 wt %)

18

SnW/(0.09 wt %)

8

GnP (1.9 wt %), SnP (0.09 wt %)

38

GnP (1.9 wt %), SnW (0.09 wt %)

40

2

Fu et al. 2014

Graphite (44.30 wt %)

MS

888.2

The maximum improvement in thermal conductivity was observed in the case of graphene sheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm.

[173]

Graphite nanoflakes (16.81 wt %)

982.3

Graphene sheets (10.10 wt %)

2258.8

3

Im and Kim 2012

Thermally conductive graphene oxide (GO) (50 wt %)

Sn

111

The thermal conductivity decreases after 50 wt %, which can be attributed to residual epoxy that forms an insulting layer on reinforcement. MWCNT helps the formation of 3D network structures.

[174]

Thermally conductive graphene oxide (GO) (50 wt %), MWCNTs (0.36 wt %)

203.4

4

Pan et al. 2015

Perylene bisimide (PBI)-hyper-branched polyglycerol (HPG) modified reduced graphene oxide (RGO), (PBI-HPG/RGO) (1 wt %)

Sn

37.5

The filler was observed to be uniformly dispersed, resulting in strong interfacial thermal resistance.

[175]

5

Zhou et al. 2015

Multi-layer graphene oxide (MGO) (2 wt %)

Sn

104.8

The thermal conductivity decreases after 2 wt % MGO.

[176]

6

Wang et al. 2015

GNPs (8 wt %)

MS

627

The thermal conductivity increases with GNPs at the loss of Vickers microhardness after 1 wt % of GNP.

[177]

7

Tien et al. 2011

Graphene flakes (12 wt %)

Sn

350

The thermal conductivity increases exponentially with increasing wt % of graphene flakes.

[178]

8

Chandrasekaran et al. 2013

GNP (2 wt %)

3RM

14

The thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature.

[179]

9

Chatterjee et al. 2012

Amine functionalized expanded graphene nanoplatelets (EGNPs) (2 wt %)

Sn + 3RM

36

The EGNPs form a conductive network in the epoxy matrix allowing for increased thermal conductivity.

[180]

10

Gallego et al. 2011

Functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) (1 wt %) in nanocomposites

ShM

63.6

The layered structure of MWNTs enables an efficient phonon transport through the inner layers, while SWNTs present a higher resistance to heat flow at the interface, due to its higher surface area. The f-MWNTs have functional groups on their surface, acting as scattering points for the phonon transport.

[181]

 

 

Fig. 5. The % increase in tensile properties of epoxy/graphene nanocomposites [194–205].

  1. Conclusions

 In recent years, graphene materials have been of great attention due to their desireable mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Besides, their large surface area as compared with other nano-structural materials, have made it an ideal substance used as nano reinforcement for many polymer-based composites. As a result, general properties and synthesizing of graphene nano plateletes were studied in the first section of the presented research. It was concluded that two-dimensionality and nanoscale thickness of the graphene platelet causes a high aspect ratio of this nano particle due to significant mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The effect of the addition of these nanoparticles on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymer composites was investigated in other sections of this research. The results of the investigations show that the mechanical properties of polymer composites highly improve by dispersion of these nano particles because of the superior mechanical properties of these nano particles. On the other hand, outstanding thermal properties of graphene platelets cause the enhancement of thermal properties of polymer composites such as increasing the thermal conductivity and decreasing of CTE of polymer-based composites. Furthermore, the high electron mobility of these nano particles causes elevated electrical conductivity of nano-polymer composites in which it was dispersed.  Finally, to determine the number of atomic layers and assess the quality of the graphene materials, sufficient information was given by Raman spectral features.

References

[1]      Wang, G. X., et al., "Synthesis of enhanced hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphene oxide nanosheets by a solvothermal method", Carbon, 2009;47:68-72.

[2]      Yang, Z., et al., "The Prospective Two-Dimensional Graphene Nanosheets: Preparation, Functionalization, and Applications", Nano-Micro Letters, 2012;4:1-9.

[3]      Li, X. S., et al., "Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes", Nano Letters,2009; 9:4359-4363.

[4]      Paredes, J. I., et al., "Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents", Langmuir, 2008;24:10560-10564.

[5]      Ajayan, P. M. and Tour, J. M., "Materials science - Nanotube composites", Nature, 2007;447:1066-1068.

[6]      Kahaly, M. U. and Waghmare, U. V., "Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon nanotubes: A first-principles study", Bulletin of Materials Science, 2008;31: 335-341.

[7]      Calizo, I., et al., "Ultraviolet Raman microscopy of single and multilayer graphene", Journal of Applied Physics, 2009;106:23-28.

[8]      Miller, S. G., et al., "Characterization of epoxy functionalized graphite nanoparticles and the physical properties of epoxy matrix nanocomposites", Composites Science and Technology, 2010;70:1120-1125.

[9]      Lee, J. K., Song, S., and Kim, B., "Functionalized graphene sheets-epoxy based nanocomposites for cryotank composite application", Polymer Composites, 2012;33:1263-1273.

[10]   Fan, Y., et al., "TiO2-graphene nanocomposite for electrochemical sensing of adenine and guanine", Electrochimica Acta, 2011;56:4685-90.

[11]   Zhang, Y. B., et al., "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene", Nature, 2005;438:201-204.

[12]   Huang, G. B., et al., "A novel intumescent flame retardant-functionalized graphene: Nanocomposite synthesis, characterization, and flammability properties", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012;135:938-947.

[13]   Zhang, Q., et al., "Fabrication of polymeric ionic liquid/graphene nanocomposite for glucose oxidase immobilization and direct electrochemistry", Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2011;26:2632-37.

[14]   Patchkovskii, S., et al., "Graphene nanostructures as tunable storage media for molecular hydrogen", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005;102:10439-10444.

[15]   Uhl, F. M., et al., "Expandable graphite/polyamide-6 nanocomposites", Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2005;89:70-84.

[16]   Shan, C. S., et al., "Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase and Biosensing for Glucose Based on Graphene", Analytical Chemistry, 2009;81:2378-2382.

[17]   Aizawa, T., et al., "Anomalous Bond of Monolayer Graphite on Transition-Metal Carbide Surfaces", Physical Review Letters, 1990;64:768-771.

[18]   Ebrahimi, S., Montazeri, A. and Rafii-Tabar, H., "Molecular dynamics study of the interfacial mechanical properties of the graphene-collagen biological nanocomposite", Computational Materials Science, 2013;69:29-39.

[19]   Sidorov, A. N., et al., "Electrostatic deposition of graphene", Nanotechnology, 2007;18:34-40.

[20]   Demir, C., Civalek, O., “On the analysis of microbeams”, International Journal of Engineering Science; 2017;121:14-33.

[21]   Numanoğlu, HM., Akgöz, B., Civalek, O., “On dynamic analysis of nanorods”, International Journal of Engineering Science; 2018;130:33-50.

[22]    Heo, C., et al., "ABS nanocomposite films based on functionalized-graphene sheets", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012;124:4663-4670.

[23]   Scarpa, F., Adhikari, S. and Phani, A. S., "Effective elastic mechanical properties of single layer graphene sheets", Nanotechnology, 2009;20:89-93.

[24]   Kim, H., Abdala, A. A. and Macosko, C. W., "Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposites", Macromolecules, 2010;43:6515-6530.

[25]   Chen, S. Y., et al., "Transport/Magnetotransport of High-Performance Graphene Transistors on Organic Molecule-Functionalized Substrates", Nano Letters, 2012;12:964-969.

[26]   Chen, C. I., et al., "Thermal characterization of thermal interface materials", Experimental Techniques, 2008;32:48-52.

[27]   Wang, Y., et al., "Application of graphene-modified electrode for selective detection of dopamine", Electrochemistry Communications, 2009;11:889-892.

[28]   Bunch, J. S., et al., "Impermeable atomic membranes from graphene sheets", Nano Letters, 2008;8:2458-2462.

[29]   Zhang, Y. J., et al., "High-conductivity graphene nanocomposite via facile, covalent linkage of gold nanoparticles to graphene oxide", Chinese Science Bulletin, 2012;57:3086-3092.

[30]   Xiao, L., et al., "Graphene-Containing Composite Materials for Water Treatment", Progress in Chemistry, 2013;25:419-430.

[31]   Kalita, G., et al., "Few layers of graphene as transparent electrode from botanical derivative camphor", Materials Letters, 2010;64:2180-83.

[32]   Demir C, Civalek O. “A new nonlocal FEM via Hermitian cubic shape functions for thermal vibration of nano beams surrounded by an elastic matrix”, Compos Struct; 2017;168:872–884.

[33]   Civalek O., B Akgöz, “Vibration analysis of micro-scaled sector shaped graphene surrounded by an elastic matrix”, Computational Materials Science; 2013;77:295-303.

[34]   Ziaee, S. “Linear free vibration of graphene sheets with nanopore via Aifantis theory and Ritz method”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics;2017;55(3):823–838.

[35]    Wu, Z. S., et al., "Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers", Carbon, 2009;47:493-499.

[36]   Kim, H., et al., "Electrical conductivity of graphite/polystyrene composites made from potassium intercalated graphite", Carbon, 2007;45:1578-1582.

[37]   Wei, S. Y., et al., "Ex Situ Solvent-Assisted Preparation of Magnetic Poly(propylene) Nanocomposites Filled with Fe2O3 Nanoparticles", Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2011;296:850-857.

[38]   Dreyer, D. R., Ruoff, R. S. and Bielawski, C. W., "From Conception to Realization: An Historial Account of Graphene and Some Perspectives for Its Future", Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 2010;49:9336-9344.

[39]   Novoselov, K. S., et al., "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films", Science, 2004;306:666-669.

[40]   Huang, H. D., et al., "High barrier graphene oxide nanosheet/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films", Journal of Membrane Science, 2012;409:156-163.

[41]   Nissimagoudar, A. S., Kamatagi, M. D. and Sankeshwar, N. S., "Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Nanoribbons", Solid State Physics, Pts 1 and 2, 2012;1447:1049-1050.

[42]   WS, H. and RE, O., “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1958;32:1339 –1939.

[43]   Xue, Q. Z., et al., "Glass transition temperature of functionalized graphene-polymer composites", Computational Materials Science, 2013;71:66-71.

[44]   Calizo, I., et al., "The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene-on-sapphire and graphene-on-glass", Applied Physics Letters, 2007;91:91-99.

[45]   Lee, J. U., Yoon, D. and Cheong, H., "Estimation of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy", Nano Letters, 2012;12:4444-4448.

[46]   Becerril, H. A., et al., "Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors", ACS Nano, 2008;2:463-470.

[47]   Yang, Z. L., et al., "Preparation of poly (3-hexylthiophene)/graphene nanocomposite via in situ reduction of modified graphite oxide sheets", Applied Surface Science, 2010;257:138-142.

[48]   Kuilla, T., et al., "Recent advances in graphene-based polymer composites", Progress in Polymer Science, 2010;35:1350-1375.

[49]   Li, D., et al., "Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:101-105.

[50]   Pop, E., et al., "Thermal conductance of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube above room temperature", Nano Letters, 2006;6:96-100.

[51]   Wang, S. R., et al., "Thermal Expansion of Graphene Composites", Macromolecules, 2009;42:5251-5255.

[52]   Alexandre, M. and Dubois, P., "Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials", Materials Science & Engineering R-Reports, 2000;28:1-63.

[53]   Robertson, D. H., Brenner, D. W., and Mintmire, J. W., "Energetics of Nanoscale Graphitic Tubules", Physical Review B, 1992;45:12592-12595.

[54]   Liang, M. H., and Zhi, L. J., "Graphene-based electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2009;19:5871-5878.

[55]   Stankovich, S., et al., "Graphene-based composite materials", Nature, 2006;442:282-286.

[56]   Yan, L., et al., "The use of polyethyleneimine-modified graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for transferring hydrophobic nanocrystals into water to produce water-dispersible hybrids for use in drug delivery", Carbon, 2013;57:120-129.

[57]   Schöche, S., et al., "Optical properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry ", Applied Surface Science,2017;421(B):778-782.

[58]   Lu, X. K., et al., "Tailoring graphite with the goal of achieving single sheets", Nanotechnology, 1999;10:269-272.

[59]   Dong, X. C., et al., "Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization with Single-Base Specificity Using Transistors Based on CVD-Grown Graphene Sheets", Advanced Materials, 2010;22:1649-1655.

[60]   Lee, C., et al., "Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene", Science, 2008;321:385-388.

[61]   Ponomarenko, L. A., et al., "Chaotic dirac billiard in graphene quantum dots", Science, 2008;320:356-358.

[62]   Park, S. and Ruoff, R. S., "Chemical methods for the production of graphenes", Nature Nanotechnology, 2009;4:217-224.

[63]   Stoller, M. D., et al., "Graphene-Based Ultracapacitors", Nano Letters, 2008;8:3498-35502.

[64]   Dong, X.C., et al., “Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization with Single-Base Specificity Using Transistors Based on CVD-Grown Graphene Sheets”, Advanced Materials, 2010;22:1649-1654.

[65]   Chen, H., et al., “Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and biocompatible graphene paper”, Advanced Materials, 2008;20(18):3557-3562.

[66]   Kim, J. S., et al., "Electrical properties of graphene/SBR nanocomposite prepared by latex heterocoagulation process at room temperature", Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2011;17:325-330.

[67]   Poot, M. and van der Zant, H. S. J., "Nanomechanical properties of few-layer graphene membranes", Applied Physics Letters, 2008;92:12-20.

[68]   Wu, Z. S., et al., "Synthesis of Graphene Sheets with High Electrical Conductivity and Good Thermal Stability by Hydrogen Arc Discharge Exfoliation", ACS Nano, 2009;3:411-417.

[69]   Kranbuehl, D. E., et al., "Measurement of the Interfacial Attraction Between Graphene Oxide Sheets and the Polymer in a Nanocomposite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011;122:3740-3744.

[70]   Kim, W. Y. and Kim, K. S., "Prediction of very large values of magnetoresistance in a graphene nanoribbon device", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:408-412.

[71]   Rafiee, M. A., et al., "Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites at Low Graphene Content", ACS Nano, 2009;3:3884-3890.

[72]   Sengupta, R., et al., "A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites", Progress in Polymer Science, 2011;36:638-670.

[73]   Mo, Z. L., et al., "Preparation and characterization of a PMMA/Ce (OH) (3), Pr2O3/graphite nanosheet composite", Polymer, 2005;46:12670-12676.

[74]   Chandra, S., Sahu, S. and Pramanik, P., "A novel synthesis of graphene by dichromate oxidation", Materials Science and Engineering B-Advanced Functional Solid-State Materials, 2010;167:133-136.

[75]   Pumera, M., "Graphene-based nanomaterials and their electrochemistry", Chemical Society Reviews, 2010;39:4146-4157.

[76]   Wan, X., et al., "Enhanced Performance and Fermi-Level Estimation of Coronene-Derived Graphene Transistors on Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Substrates in Large Areas", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2013;117:4800-4807.

[77]   Liu, S., et al., "Green electrochemical synthesis of Pt/graphene sheet nanocomposite film and its electrocatalytic property", Journal of Power Sources, 2010;195:4628-4633.

[78]   Li, Y. F., et al., "Poly (propylene)/Graphene Nanoplatelet Nanocomposites: Melt Rheological Behavior and Thermal, Electrical, and Electronic Properties", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2011;212:1951-1959.

[79]   Dujardin, E., et al., "Wetting of single shell carbon nanotubes", Advanced Materials, 1998;10:1472-1475.

[80]   Calizo, I., et al., "Raman nanometrology of graphene: Temperature and substrate effects", Solid State Communications, 2009;149:1132-1135.

[81]   Tseng, I. H., et al., "Transparent polyimide/graphene oxide nanocomposite with improved moisture barrier property", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012;136:247-253.

[82]   Schedin, F., et al., "Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene", Nature Materials, 2007;6:652-655.

[83]   Van Lier, G., et al., "Ab initio study of the elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene", Chemical Physics Letters, 2000;326:181-185.

[84]   Chatterjee, A. and Deopura, B. L., "Thermal stability of polypropylene/carbon nanofiber composite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2006;100:3574-3578.

[85]   Wakabayashi, K., et al., "Polypropylene-graphite nanocomposites made by solid-state shear pulverization: Effects of significantly exfoliated, unmodified graphite content on physical, mechanical and electrical properties", Polymer, 2010;51:5525-5531.

[86]   Youn, D. H., et al., "Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes", Nanotechnology, 2013;24:13-19.

[87]   Chorro, M., et al., "1D-confinement of polyiodides inside single-wall carbon nanotubes", Carbon, 2013;52:100-108.

[88]   Zheng, W. and Wong, S. C., "Electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of PMMA/expanded graphite composites", Composites Science and Technology, 2003;63:225-235.

[89]   Brownson, D. A. C., Kampouris, D. K. and Banks, C. E., "An overview of graphene in energy production and storage applications", Journal of Power Sources, 2011;196:4873-4885.

[90]   Li, C., et al., "Preparation and dielectric properties of polyarylene ether nitriles/TiO2 nanocomposite film", Materials Letters, 2005;59:59-63.

[91]   Sun, Y. H., Luo, Y. F. and Jia, D. M., "Preparation and properties of natural rubber nanocomposites with solid-state organomodified montmorillonite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2008;107:2786-2792.

[92]   Buron, J. D., et al., "Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping", Nano Letters, 2012;12:5074-5081.

[93]   Yu, Y. J., et al., "Tuning the Graphene Work Function by Electric Field Effect", Nano Letters, 2009;9:3430-3434.

[94]   Li, X. L., et al., "A nanocomposite of graphene/MnO2 nanoplatelets for high-capacity lithium storage", Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2012;42:1065-1070.

[95]   Ho, K. K., et al., "Preparation and characterization of covalently functionalized graphene using vinyl-terminated benzoxazine monomer and associated nanocomposites with low coefficient of thermal expansion", Polymer International, 2013;62:966-973.

[96]   Mathur, R. B., Chatterjee, S. and Singh, B. P., "Growth of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibre substrates to produce hybrid/phenolic composites with improved mechanical properties", Composites Science and Technology, 2008;68:1608-1615.

[97]   Huang, Y. J., et al., "Polypropylene/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Ziegler-Natta Polymerization", Chemistry of Materials, 2010;22:4096-4102.

[98]   Winey, K. I. and Vaia, R. A., "Polymer nanocomposites", Mrs. Bulletin, 2007;32:314-319.

[99]   Zhou, Y. Z., et al., "Electrostatic self-assembly of graphene-silver multilayer films and their transmittance and electronic conductivity", Carbon, 2012;50:4343-4350.

[100]         Zhou, S. X., et al., "Experiments and modeling of thermal conductivity of flake graphite/polymer composites affected by adding carbon-based nano-fillers", Carbon, 2013;57:452-459.

[101]         Liu, X. B., et al., "Preparation and properties of polyarylene ether nitrites/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites", Materials Letters, 2008;62:19-22.

[102]         Pan, D. Y., et al., "Li Storage Properties of Disordered Graphene Nanosheets", Chemistry of Materials, 2009;21:3136-3142.

[103]         Salavagione, H. J., Gomez, M. A. and Martinez, G., "Polymeric Modification of Graphene through Esterification of Graphite Oxide and Poly (vinyl alcohol)", Macromolecules, 2009;42:6331-6634

[104]         Podsiadlo, P., et al., "Ultrastrong and stiff layered polymer nanocomposites", Science, 2007;318:80-83.

[105]         Ritter, K. A., and Lyding, J. W., "Characterization of nanometer-sized, mechanically exfoliated graphene on the H-passivated Si(100) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy", Nanotechnology, 2008;19,65-71.

[106]         Avouris, P. and Dimitrakopoulos, C., "Graphene: synthesis and applications", Materials Today, 2012;15:86-97.

[107]         Li, T., et al., "Hydrothermal preparation, characterization and enhanced properties of reduced graphene-BiFeO3 nanocomposite", Materials Letters, 2013;91:42-44.

[108]         Yang, H., et al., “Tin indium oxide/graphene nanosheet nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries with enhanced lithium storage capacity and rate capability”, Electrochimica Acta, 2013;91:275-281.

[109]         Tang, Q.W., et al., “MoO2-graphene nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries”, Electrochimica Acta, 2012;79:148-153.

[110]         Berger, C., et al., “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics”. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2004;108(52):19912-19916.

[111]         Eda, G. and Chhowalla, M., "Graphene-based Composite Thin Films for Electronics", Nano Letters, 9:814-818 (2009)

[112]         Tkalya, E., et al., "Latex-based concept for the preparation of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2010;20:3035-3039.

[113]         McAllister, M. J., et al., "Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite", Chemistry of Materials, 2007;19:4396-4404.

[114]         Wang, G. X., et al., "Facile synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2008;112:8192-8195.

[115]         Berger, C., et al., "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene", Science, 2006;312:1191-1196.

[116]         Kumskov, A. S., et al., "The structure of 1D and 3D CuI nanocrystals grown within 1.5-2.5 nm single wall carbon nanotubes obtained by catalyzed chemical vapor deposition", Carbon, 2012;50:4696-4704.

[117]         Wang, X. L., et al., "Synthesis of CaCO3/graphene composite crystals for ultra-strong structural materials", Rsc Advances, 2012;2:2154-2160.

[118]         Stoberl, U., et al., "Morphology and flexibility of graphene and few-layer graphene on various substrates", Applied Physics Letters, 2008;93:56-68.

[119]         Carlsson, J. M., "Buckle or break", Nature Materials, 2007;6:801-802.

[120]         Compton, O. C., and Nguyen, S. T., "Graphene Oxide, Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Graphene: Versatile Building Blocks for Carbon-Based Materials", Small, 2010;6:711-723.

[121]         Nemes-Incze, P., et al., "Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy", Carbon, 2008;46:1435-1442.

[122]         Pereira, L. F. C., and Donadio, D., "Divergence of the thermal conductivity in uniaxially strained graphene", Physical Review B, 2013;87,121-129.

[123]         Balandin, A. A., et al., "Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene", Nano Letters, 2008;8:902-907.

[124]         Huang, Y. L. and Young, R. J., "Analysis of the Fragmentation Test for Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Model Composites by Means of Raman-Spectroscopy", Composites Science and Technology, 1994;52:505-517.

[125]         Xu, Y. X., et al., "Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008;130:5856-5859.

[126]         Vivekchand, S. R. C., et al., "Graphene-based electrochemical supercapacitors", Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2008;120:9-13.

[127]         Ghosh, A., et al., "Noncovalent Functionalization, Exfoliation, and Solubilization of Graphene in Water by Employing a Fluorescent Coronene Carboxylate", Chemistry-a European Journal, 2010;16:2700-2704.

[128]         Bernal, M. M., et al., "Comparing the effect of carbon-based nanofillers on the physical properties of flexible polyurethane foams", Journal of Materials Science, 2012;47:5673-5679.

[129]         Dinadayalane, T. C. and Leszczynski, J., "Remarkable diversity of carbon-carbon bonds: structures and properties of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene", Structural Chemistry, 2010;21:1155-1169.

[130]         Iski, E. V., et al., "Graphene at the Atomic-Scale: Synthesis, Characterization, and Modification", Advanced Functional Materials, 2013;23:2554-2564.

[131]         Kotov, N. A., "Materials science: Carbon sheet solutions", Nature, 2006;442:254-255.

[132]         Thostenson, E. T., Li, C. Y. and Chou, T. W., "Nanocomposites in context", Composites Science and Technology, 2005;65:491-516.

[133]         Schelling, P. K., and Keblinski, R., "Thermal expansion of carbon structures", Physical Review B, 2003;68:97-102.

[134]         Chang, I. H., Seo, B. S., and Kim, S. H., "Blends of a thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymer and a poly (butylene terephthalate)/organoclay nanocomposite", Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics, 2004;42:3667-3676.

[135]         Bonanni, A. and Pumera, M., "Graphene Platform for Hairpin-DNA-Based Impedimetric Genosensing", ACS Nano, 2011;5:2356-2361.

[136]         Su, Q., et al., "Composites of Graphene with Large Aromatic Molecules", Advanced Materials, 2009;21:3191-3196.

[137]         Biercuk, M. J., et al., "Carbon nanotube composites for thermal management", Applied Physics Letters, 2002;80:2767-2769.

[138]         Jang, B. Z. and Zhamu, A., "Processing of nanographene platelets (NGPs) and NGP nanocomposites: a review", Journal of Materials Science, 2008;43:5092-5101.

[139]         Bekyarova, E., et al., "Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for carbon fiber-epoxy composites", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2007;111:17865-17871.

[140]         Rai, A. K., et al., "Electrochemical and safety characteristics of TiP2O7-graphene nanocomposite anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2012;75:247-253.

[141]         Dyachkov, P. N. and Breslavskaya, N. N., "Calculations of the electronic structure of tubulenes and fullerenes with the use of data on the structure of sigma- and pi-bands of graphite", Chemical Physics Reports, 1999;18:213-225.

[142]         LeBaron, P. C., Wang, Z. and Pinnavaia, T. J., "Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview", Applied Clay Science, 1999;15:11-29.

[143]         Ivanovskii, A. L., "Fullerenes and related nanoparticles encapsulated in nanotubes: Synthesis, properties, and design of new hybrid nanostructures", Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2003;48:846-860.

[144]         Guo, S. J., et al., "Platinum Nanoparticle Ensemble-on-Graphene Hybrid Nanosheet: One-Pot, Rapid Synthesis, and Used as New Electrode Material for Electrochemical Sensing", ACS Nano, 2010;4:3959-3968.

[145]         Ijsseling, F. P., "Electrochemical Methods in Crevice Corrosion Testing - Report Prepared for the Working Party Physicochemical Methods of Corrosion - Fundamentals and Applications of the European-Federation-of-Corrosion", Werkstoffe Und Korrosion-Materials and Corrosion, 1981;32:389-390.

[146]         Du, Z. F., et al., "In situ synthesis of SnO2/graphene nanocomposite and their application as anode material for lithium ion battery", Materials Letters, 2010;64:2076-2079.

[147]         Tombros, N., et al., "Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature", Nature, 2007;448:571-574.

[148]         Park, S., et al., "Colloidal Suspensions of Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide in a Wide Variety of Organic Solvents", Nano Letters, 2009;9:1593-1597.

[149]         Morozov, S. V., et al., "Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer", Physical Review Letters, 2008;100:18-27.

[150]         Jiang, H., Huang, Y. and Hwang, K. C., "A finite-temperature continuum theory based on interatomic potentials", Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology-Transactions of the ASME, 2005;127:408-416.

[151]         Wang, J. Q. and Han, Z. D., "The combustion behavior of polyacrylate ester/graphite oxide composites", Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 2006;17:335-340.

[152]         Monakhova, T. V., et al., "Thermooxidative Degradation of Polypropylene - Graphite Compositions", Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya Seriya A, 1988;30:2415-2419.

[153]         Yu, A. P., et al., "Graphite nanoplatelet-epoxy composite thermal interface materials", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2007;111:7565-7569.

[154]         Lu, L. M., et al., "A facile one-step redox route for the synthesis of graphene/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanocomposite and their applications in biosensing", Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 2013;181:567-574.

[155]         Zhang, Y. B., et al., "Electric field modulation of galvanomagnetic properties of mesoscopic graphite", Physical Review Letters, 2005;94:54-60.

[156]         Eda, G., Fanchini, G. and Chhowalla, M., "Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:270-274.

[157]         Mounet, N. and Marzari, N., "First-principles determination of the structural, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of diamond, graphite, and derivatives", Physical Review B, 2005;71:23-34.

[158]         Boehm, H. P., Setton, R. and Stumpp, E., "Nomenclature and Terminology of Graphite-Intercalation Compounds (Iupac Recommendations 1994)", Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1994;66:1893-1901.

[159]         Hu, K. S., et al., "Ultra-Robust Graphene Oxide-Silk Fibroin Nanocomposite Membranes", Advanced Materials, 2013;25:2301-2307.

[160]         Bolotin, K. I., et al., "Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene", Solid State Communications, 2008;146:351-355.

[161]         Ramanathan, T., et al., "Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:327-331.

[162]         Barkauskas, J., et al., "Nanocomposite films and coatings produced by interaction between graphite oxide and Congo red", Journal of Materials Science, 2012;47:5852-5860.

[163]         Du, X. S., et al., "Synthesis and properties of poly (4,4 '-oxybis (benzene)disulfide)/graphite nanocomposites via in situ ring-opening polymerization of macrocyclic oligomers", Polymer, 2004;45:6713-6718.

[164]         Geim, A. K. and Novoselov, K. S., "The rise of graphene", Nature Materials, 2007;6:183-191.

[165]         Lv, W., et al., "Low-temperature exfoliated graphenes: vacuum-promoted exfoliation and electrochemical energy storage", ACS Nano, 2009;3(11):3730-6

[166]         Huang, L. P., et al., "Graphene: learning from carbon nanotubes", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011;21:919-929.

[167]         Seyller, T., et al., "Epitaxial graphene: a new material", Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid-State Physics, 2008;245:1436-1446.

[168]         Li, X. L., et al., "Chemically derived, ultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors", Science, 2008;319:1229-1232.

[169]         Zhang, D., et al., "Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite fibers reinforced with Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Fabrication and property analysis", Polymer, 2009;50:4189-4198.

[170]         Kim, H. and Macosko, C. W., "Morphology and properties of polyester/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites", Macromolecules, 2008;41:3317-3327.

[171]         Abboud, O., et al., "The Istanbul declaration against organ trafficking and transplant tourism", Nephrologie & Therapeutique, 2009;5:341-345.

[172]         Kandare, E.; et al., "Improving the through-thickness thermal and electrical conductivity of carbon fibre/epoxy laminates by exploiting synergy between graphene and silver nano-inclusions”, Compos. Part A; 2015; 69:72–82.

[173]         Fu, Y.-X.; et al., "Thermal conductivity enhancement of epoxy adhesive using graphene sheets as additives”, Int. J. Therm. Sci.; 2014;86:276–283.

[174]         Im, H.; Kim, J. “Thermal conductivity of a graphene oxide–carbon nanotube hybrid/epoxy composite”, Carbon; 2012;50:5429–5440.

[175]         Pan, L.; et al., "Improving thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by using functionalized graphene”, RSC Adv.; 2015;5:60596–60607.

[176]         Zhou, T. “Targeted kinetic strategy for improving the thermal conductivity of epoxy composite containing percolating multi-layer graphene oxide chains”, Express Polym. Lett.;2015;9:608–623.

[177]         Wang, Y.; et al., "Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties of Epoxy Composites Reinforced With Graphene Nanoplatelets”, Polym. Compos.;2015;36:556-565.

[178]         Tien, D.H.; et al., "Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Stycast 1266 Epoxy/Graphite Composites”, J. Korean Phys. Soc.;2011;59:2760–2764.

[179]         Chandrasekaran, S.; Seidel, C.; Schulte, K. “Preparation and characterization of graphite nano-platelet (GNP)/epoxy nano-composite: Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties”, Eur. Polym. J.;2013; 49:3878–3888.

[180]         Chatterjee, S.; et al., "Mechanical reinforcement and thermal conductivity in expanded graphene nanoplatelets reinforced epoxy composites”, Chem. Phys. Lett.;2012, 531, 6–10.

[181]         Martin-gallego, M.; et al., "Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and graphene in epoxy nanofluids and nanocomposites”, Nanoscale Res. Lett.;2011;6:1–7.

[182]         Eizenberg, M. and Blakely, J. M., "Carbon Monolayer Phase Condensation on Ni(111)", Surface Science, 1979;82:228-236.

[183]         Szabo, T., Berkesi, O. and Dekany, I., "DRIFT study of deuterium-exchanged graphite oxide", Carbon, 2005;43:3186-3189.

[184]         Fan, Y. F., et al., "Synthesis of CTAB-intercalated graphene/polypyrrole nanocomposites via in situ oxidative polymerization", Synthetic Metals, 2012;162:1815-1821.

[185]         Wang, X., Jin, J. and Song, M., "Cyanate ester resin/graphene nanocomposite: Curing dynamics and network formation", European Polymer Journal, 2012;48:1034-1041.

[186]         Chen, L., et al., "Silicone rubber/graphite nanosheet electrically conducting nanocomposite with a low percolation threshold", Polymer Composites, 2007;28:493-498.

[187]         Gomez-Navarro, C., Burghard, M. and Kern, K., "Elastic properties of chemically derived single graphene sheets", Nano Letters, 2008;8:2045-2049.

[188]         Zhang, X., et al., "Direct laser initiation and improved thermal stability of nitrocellulose/graphene oxide nanocomposites", Applied Physics Letters, 2013;102:23-45.

[189]         Si, Y. and Samulski, E. T., "Synthesis of water-soluble graphene", Nano Letters, 2008;8:1679-1682.

[190]         Hung, M. T., et al., "Heat conduction in graphite-nanoplatelet-reinforced polymer nanocomposites", Applied Physics Letters, 2006;89:12-19.

[191]         Wang, X., et al., "Synergistic Effect of Graphene on Antidripping and Fire Resistance of Intumescent Flame Retardant Poly (butylene succinate) Composites", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2011;50:5376-5383.

[192]         Lian, P. C., et al., "High reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2011;56:4532-4539.

[193]         Guo, W., et al., "Nitroxide radical polymer/graphene nanocomposite as an improved cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2012;72:81-86.

[194]         Hsu, C.-H.; et al., "Physical study of room-temperature-cured epoxy/thermally reduced graphene oxides with various contents of oxygen-containing groups", Polym. Int.;2014; 63:1765–1770.

[195]         Yang, Y.; et al., "Enhancing graphene reinforcing potential in composites by hydrogen passivation induced dispersion", Sci. Rep.;2013;3:2086–2093.

[196]         Shiu, S.-C.; Tsai, J.-L. “Characterizing thermal and mechanical properties of graphene/epoxy nanocomposites", Compos. Part B;2014; 56:691–697.

[197]         Yu, G.; Wu, P. “Effect of chemically modified graphene oxide on the phase separation behaviour and properties of an epoxy/polyetherimide binary system", Polym. Chem.;2014; 5:96–104.

[198]         Liu, T.; Zhao, Z.; Tjiu, W.W.; Lv, J.; Wei, C. “Preparation and characterization of epoxy nanocomposites containing surface-modified graphene oxide", J. Appl. Polym. Sci.;2014; 131:40236–40242.

[199]         Liu, F.; Guo, K. “Reinforcing epoxy resin through covalent integration of functionalized graphene nanosheets”, Polym. Adv. Technol.;2014; 25:418–423.

[200]         Guan, L.-Z.; et al., "Toward effective and tunable interphases in graphene oxide/epoxy composites by grafting different chain lengths of polyetheramine onto graphene oxide” J. Mater. Chem. A;2014; 2:15058–15069.

[201]         Martin-Gallego, M.; et al., "Comparison of filler percolation and mechanical properties in graphene and carbon nanotubes filled epoxy nanocomposites” Eur. Polym. J.;2013; 49:1347–1353.

[202]         Ribeiro, H.; et al., "Glass transition improvement in epoxy/graphene composites” J. Mater. Sci.;2013; 48:7883–7892.

[203]         Wajid, A.S.; et al., "High-Performance Pristine Graphene/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Mechanical and Electrical Properties” Macromol. Mater. Eng.;2013; 298:339–347.

[204]         Zhang, X.; et al., "Strengthened magnetic epoxy nanocomposites with protruding nanoparticles on the graphene nanosheets” Polymer (Guildf) ;2013;54:3594–3604.

[205]         Wang, X.; et al., "Functionalization of graphene with grafted polyphosphamide for flame retardant epoxy composites: Synthesis, flammability and mechanism” Polym. Chem.;2014;5: 1145-1154.

[206]          Zhou, M., Zhai, Y. M. and Dong, S. J., "Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing Platform Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide", Analytical Chemistry, 2009;81:5603-5613.

[207]         Liang, J. J., et al., "Infrared-Triggered Actuators from Graphene-Based Nanocomposites", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009;113:9921-9927.

[208]         Jiang, H., et al., "Thermal expansion of single wall carbon nanotubes", Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology-Transactions of the ASME, 2004;126:265-270.

[209]         Peres, N. M. R., Neto, A. H. C. and Guinea, F., "Conductance quantization in mesoscopic graphene", Physical Review B, 2006;73:18-25.

[210]         Wu, J. S., Pisula, W. and Mullen, K., "Graphenes as potential material for electronics", Chemical Reviews, 2007;107:718-747.

[211]         Mattausch, A. and Pankratov, O., "Density functional study of graphene overlayers on SiC", Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid-State Physics, 2008;245:1425-1435.

[212]         Chatterjee, S., et al., "Size and synergy effects of nanofiller hybrids including graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes in mechanical properties of epoxy composites", Carbon, 2012;50:5380-5386.

[213]         Schartel, B., et al., "Fire retardancy of polypropylene/flax blends", Polymer, 2003;44:6241-6250.

[214]         Kim, K. S., et al., "Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes", Nature, 2009;457:706-710.

[215]         Berber, S., Kwon, Y. K. and Tomanek, D., "Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes", Physical Review Letters, 2000;84:4613-4616.

[216]         Zeng, Q. O., et al., "Self-Assembled Graphene-Enzyme Hierarchical Nanostructures for Electrochemical Biosensing", Advanced Functional Materials, 2010;20:3366-3372.

[217]         Geim, A. K., "Graphene: Status and Prospects", Science, 2009;324:1530-1534.

[218]         Wang, C. Y., et al., "Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Paper Electrodes Used in Lithium Batteries", Chemistry of Materials, 2009;21:2604-2606.

 

 

[1]      Wang, G. X., et al., "Synthesis of enhanced hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphene oxide nanosheets by a solvothermal method", Carbon, 2009;47:68-72.
[2]      Yang, Z., et al., "The Prospective Two-Dimensional Graphene Nanosheets: Preparation, Functionalization, and Applications", Nano-Micro Letters, 2012;4:1-9.
[3]      Li, X. S., et al., "Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes", Nano Letters,2009; 9:4359-4363.
[4]      Paredes, J. I., et al., "Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents", Langmuir, 2008;24:10560-10564.
[5]      Ajayan, P. M. and Tour, J. M., "Materials science - Nanotube composites", Nature, 2007;447:1066-1068.
[6]      Kahaly, M. U. and Waghmare, U. V., "Effect of curvature on structures and vibrations of zigzag carbon nanotubes: A first-principles study", Bulletin of Materials Science, 2008;31: 335-341.
[7]      Calizo, I., et al., "Ultraviolet Raman microscopy of single and multilayer graphene", Journal of Applied Physics, 2009;106:23-28.
[8]      Miller, S. G., et al., "Characterization of epoxy functionalized graphite nanoparticles and the physical properties of epoxy matrix nanocomposites", Composites Science and Technology, 2010;70:1120-1125.
[9]      Lee, J. K., Song, S., and Kim, B., "Functionalized graphene sheets-epoxy based nanocomposites for cryotank composite application", Polymer Composites, 2012;33:1263-1273.
[10]   Fan, Y., et al., "TiO2-graphene nanocomposite for electrochemical sensing of adenine and guanine", Electrochimica Acta, 2011;56:4685-90.
[11]   Zhang, Y. B., et al., "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene", Nature, 2005;438:201-204.
[12]   Huang, G. B., et al., "A novel intumescent flame retardant-functionalized graphene: Nanocomposite synthesis, characterization, and flammability properties", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012;135:938-947.
[13]   Zhang, Q., et al., "Fabrication of polymeric ionic liquid/graphene nanocomposite for glucose oxidase immobilization and direct electrochemistry", Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2011;26:2632-37.
[14]   Patchkovskii, S., et al., "Graphene nanostructures as tunable storage media for molecular hydrogen", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005;102:10439-10444.
[15]   Uhl, F. M., et al., "Expandable graphite/polyamide-6 nanocomposites", Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2005;89:70-84.
[16]   Shan, C. S., et al., "Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase and Biosensing for Glucose Based on Graphene", Analytical Chemistry, 2009;81:2378-2382.
[17]   Aizawa, T., et al., "Anomalous Bond of Monolayer Graphite on Transition-Metal Carbide Surfaces", Physical Review Letters, 1990;64:768-771.
[18]   Ebrahimi, S., Montazeri, A. and Rafii-Tabar, H., "Molecular dynamics study of the interfacial mechanical properties of the graphene-collagen biological nanocomposite", Computational Materials Science, 2013;69:29-39.
[19]   Sidorov, A. N., et al., "Electrostatic deposition of graphene", Nanotechnology, 2007;18:34-40.
[20]   Demir, C., Civalek, O., “On the analysis of microbeams”, International Journal of Engineering Science; 2017;121:14-33.
[21]   Numanoğlu, HM., Akgöz, B., Civalek, O., “On dynamic analysis of nanorods”, International Journal of Engineering Science; 2018;130:33-50.
[22]    Heo, C., et al., "ABS nanocomposite films based on functionalized-graphene sheets", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012;124:4663-4670.
[23]   Scarpa, F., Adhikari, S. and Phani, A. S., "Effective elastic mechanical properties of single layer graphene sheets", Nanotechnology, 2009;20:89-93.
[24]   Kim, H., Abdala, A. A. and Macosko, C. W., "Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposites", Macromolecules, 2010;43:6515-6530.
[25]   Chen, S. Y., et al., "Transport/Magnetotransport of High-Performance Graphene Transistors on Organic Molecule-Functionalized Substrates", Nano Letters, 2012;12:964-969.
[26]   Chen, C. I., et al., "Thermal characterization of thermal interface materials", Experimental Techniques, 2008;32:48-52.
[27]   Wang, Y., et al., "Application of graphene-modified electrode for selective detection of dopamine", Electrochemistry Communications, 2009;11:889-892.
[28]   Bunch, J. S., et al., "Impermeable atomic membranes from graphene sheets", Nano Letters, 2008;8:2458-2462.
[29]   Zhang, Y. J., et al., "High-conductivity graphene nanocomposite via facile, covalent linkage of gold nanoparticles to graphene oxide", Chinese Science Bulletin, 2012;57:3086-3092.
[30]   Xiao, L., et al., "Graphene-Containing Composite Materials for Water Treatment", Progress in Chemistry, 2013;25:419-430.
[31]   Kalita, G., et al., "Few layers of graphene as transparent electrode from botanical derivative camphor", Materials Letters, 2010;64:2180-83.
[32]   Demir C, Civalek O. “A new nonlocal FEM via Hermitian cubic shape functions for thermal vibration of nano beams surrounded by an elastic matrix”, Compos Struct; 2017;168:872–884.
[33]   Civalek O., B Akgöz, “Vibration analysis of micro-scaled sector shaped graphene surrounded by an elastic matrix”, Computational Materials Science; 2013;77:295-303.
[34]   Ziaee, S. “Linear free vibration of graphene sheets with nanopore via Aifantis theory and Ritz method”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics;2017;55(3):823–838.
[35]    Wu, Z. S., et al., "Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers", Carbon, 2009;47:493-499.
[36]   Kim, H., et al., "Electrical conductivity of graphite/polystyrene composites made from potassium intercalated graphite", Carbon, 2007;45:1578-1582.
[37]   Wei, S. Y., et al., "Ex Situ Solvent-Assisted Preparation of Magnetic Poly(propylene) Nanocomposites Filled with Fe2O3 Nanoparticles", Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2011;296:850-857.
[38]   Dreyer, D. R., Ruoff, R. S. and Bielawski, C. W., "From Conception to Realization: An Historial Account of Graphene and Some Perspectives for Its Future", Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 2010;49:9336-9344.
[39]   Novoselov, K. S., et al., "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films", Science, 2004;306:666-669.
[40]   Huang, H. D., et al., "High barrier graphene oxide nanosheet/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films", Journal of Membrane Science, 2012;409:156-163.
[41]   Nissimagoudar, A. S., Kamatagi, M. D. and Sankeshwar, N. S., "Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Nanoribbons", Solid State Physics, Pts 1 and 2, 2012;1447:1049-1050.
[42]   WS, H. and RE, O., “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1958;32:1339 –1939.
[43]   Xue, Q. Z., et al., "Glass transition temperature of functionalized graphene-polymer composites", Computational Materials Science, 2013;71:66-71.
[44]   Calizo, I., et al., "The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene-on-sapphire and graphene-on-glass", Applied Physics Letters, 2007;91:91-99.
[45]   Lee, J. U., Yoon, D. and Cheong, H., "Estimation of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy", Nano Letters, 2012;12:4444-4448.
[46]   Becerril, H. A., et al., "Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors", ACS Nano, 2008;2:463-470.
[47]   Yang, Z. L., et al., "Preparation of poly (3-hexylthiophene)/graphene nanocomposite via in situ reduction of modified graphite oxide sheets", Applied Surface Science, 2010;257:138-142.
[48]   Kuilla, T., et al., "Recent advances in graphene-based polymer composites", Progress in Polymer Science, 2010;35:1350-1375.
[49]   Li, D., et al., "Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:101-105.
[50]   Pop, E., et al., "Thermal conductance of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube above room temperature", Nano Letters, 2006;6:96-100.
[51]   Wang, S. R., et al., "Thermal Expansion of Graphene Composites", Macromolecules, 2009;42:5251-5255.
[52]   Alexandre, M. and Dubois, P., "Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials", Materials Science & Engineering R-Reports, 2000;28:1-63.
[53]   Robertson, D. H., Brenner, D. W., and Mintmire, J. W., "Energetics of Nanoscale Graphitic Tubules", Physical Review B, 1992;45:12592-12595.
[54]   Liang, M. H., and Zhi, L. J., "Graphene-based electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2009;19:5871-5878.
[55]   Stankovich, S., et al., "Graphene-based composite materials", Nature, 2006;442:282-286.
[56]   Yan, L., et al., "The use of polyethyleneimine-modified graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for transferring hydrophobic nanocrystals into water to produce water-dispersible hybrids for use in drug delivery", Carbon, 2013;57:120-129.
[57]   Schöche, S., et al., "Optical properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry ", Applied Surface Science,2017;421(B):778-782.
[58]   Lu, X. K., et al., "Tailoring graphite with the goal of achieving single sheets", Nanotechnology, 1999;10:269-272.
[59]   Dong, X. C., et al., "Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization with Single-Base Specificity Using Transistors Based on CVD-Grown Graphene Sheets", Advanced Materials, 2010;22:1649-1655.
[60]   Lee, C., et al., "Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene", Science, 2008;321:385-388.
[61]   Ponomarenko, L. A., et al., "Chaotic dirac billiard in graphene quantum dots", Science, 2008;320:356-358.
[62]   Park, S. and Ruoff, R. S., "Chemical methods for the production of graphenes", Nature Nanotechnology, 2009;4:217-224.
[63]   Stoller, M. D., et al., "Graphene-Based Ultracapacitors", Nano Letters, 2008;8:3498-35502.
[64]   Dong, X.C., et al., “Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization with Single-Base Specificity Using Transistors Based on CVD-Grown Graphene Sheets”, Advanced Materials, 2010;22:1649-1654.
[65]   Chen, H., et al., “Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and biocompatible graphene paper”, Advanced Materials, 2008;20(18):3557-3562.
[66]   Kim, J. S., et al., "Electrical properties of graphene/SBR nanocomposite prepared by latex heterocoagulation process at room temperature", Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2011;17:325-330.
[67]   Poot, M. and van der Zant, H. S. J., "Nanomechanical properties of few-layer graphene membranes", Applied Physics Letters, 2008;92:12-20.
[68]   Wu, Z. S., et al., "Synthesis of Graphene Sheets with High Electrical Conductivity and Good Thermal Stability by Hydrogen Arc Discharge Exfoliation", ACS Nano, 2009;3:411-417.
[69]   Kranbuehl, D. E., et al., "Measurement of the Interfacial Attraction Between Graphene Oxide Sheets and the Polymer in a Nanocomposite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011;122:3740-3744.
[70]   Kim, W. Y. and Kim, K. S., "Prediction of very large values of magnetoresistance in a graphene nanoribbon device", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:408-412.
[71]   Rafiee, M. A., et al., "Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites at Low Graphene Content", ACS Nano, 2009;3:3884-3890.
[72]   Sengupta, R., et al., "A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites", Progress in Polymer Science, 2011;36:638-670.
[73]   Mo, Z. L., et al., "Preparation and characterization of a PMMA/Ce (OH) (3), Pr2O3/graphite nanosheet composite", Polymer, 2005;46:12670-12676.
[74]   Chandra, S., Sahu, S. and Pramanik, P., "A novel synthesis of graphene by dichromate oxidation", Materials Science and Engineering B-Advanced Functional Solid-State Materials, 2010;167:133-136.
[75]   Pumera, M., "Graphene-based nanomaterials and their electrochemistry", Chemical Society Reviews, 2010;39:4146-4157.
[76]   Wan, X., et al., "Enhanced Performance and Fermi-Level Estimation of Coronene-Derived Graphene Transistors on Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Substrates in Large Areas", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2013;117:4800-4807.
[77]   Liu, S., et al., "Green electrochemical synthesis of Pt/graphene sheet nanocomposite film and its electrocatalytic property", Journal of Power Sources, 2010;195:4628-4633.
[78]   Li, Y. F., et al., "Poly (propylene)/Graphene Nanoplatelet Nanocomposites: Melt Rheological Behavior and Thermal, Electrical, and Electronic Properties", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2011;212:1951-1959.
[79]   Dujardin, E., et al., "Wetting of single shell carbon nanotubes", Advanced Materials, 1998;10:1472-1475.
[80]   Calizo, I., et al., "Raman nanometrology of graphene: Temperature and substrate effects", Solid State Communications, 2009;149:1132-1135.
[81]   Tseng, I. H., et al., "Transparent polyimide/graphene oxide nanocomposite with improved moisture barrier property", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2012;136:247-253.
[82]   Schedin, F., et al., "Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene", Nature Materials, 2007;6:652-655.
[83]   Van Lier, G., et al., "Ab initio study of the elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene", Chemical Physics Letters, 2000;326:181-185.
[84]   Chatterjee, A. and Deopura, B. L., "Thermal stability of polypropylene/carbon nanofiber composite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2006;100:3574-3578.
[85]   Wakabayashi, K., et al., "Polypropylene-graphite nanocomposites made by solid-state shear pulverization: Effects of significantly exfoliated, unmodified graphite content on physical, mechanical and electrical properties", Polymer, 2010;51:5525-5531.
[86]   Youn, D. H., et al., "Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes", Nanotechnology, 2013;24:13-19.
[87]   Chorro, M., et al., "1D-confinement of polyiodides inside single-wall carbon nanotubes", Carbon, 2013;52:100-108.
[88]   Zheng, W. and Wong, S. C., "Electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of PMMA/expanded graphite composites", Composites Science and Technology, 2003;63:225-235.
[89]   Brownson, D. A. C., Kampouris, D. K. and Banks, C. E., "An overview of graphene in energy production and storage applications", Journal of Power Sources, 2011;196:4873-4885.
[90]   Li, C., et al., "Preparation and dielectric properties of polyarylene ether nitriles/TiO2 nanocomposite film", Materials Letters, 2005;59:59-63.
[91]   Sun, Y. H., Luo, Y. F. and Jia, D. M., "Preparation and properties of natural rubber nanocomposites with solid-state organomodified montmorillonite", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2008;107:2786-2792.
[92]   Buron, J. D., et al., "Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping", Nano Letters, 2012;12:5074-5081.
[93]   Yu, Y. J., et al., "Tuning the Graphene Work Function by Electric Field Effect", Nano Letters, 2009;9:3430-3434.
[94]   Li, X. L., et al., "A nanocomposite of graphene/MnO2 nanoplatelets for high-capacity lithium storage", Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2012;42:1065-1070.
[95]   Ho, K. K., et al., "Preparation and characterization of covalently functionalized graphene using vinyl-terminated benzoxazine monomer and associated nanocomposites with low coefficient of thermal expansion", Polymer International, 2013;62:966-973.
[96]   Mathur, R. B., Chatterjee, S. and Singh, B. P., "Growth of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibre substrates to produce hybrid/phenolic composites with improved mechanical properties", Composites Science and Technology, 2008;68:1608-1615.
[97]   Huang, Y. J., et al., "Polypropylene/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Ziegler-Natta Polymerization", Chemistry of Materials, 2010;22:4096-4102.
[98]   Winey, K. I. and Vaia, R. A., "Polymer nanocomposites", Mrs. Bulletin, 2007;32:314-319.
[99]   Zhou, Y. Z., et al., "Electrostatic self-assembly of graphene-silver multilayer films and their transmittance and electronic conductivity", Carbon, 2012;50:4343-4350.
[100]         Zhou, S. X., et al., "Experiments and modeling of thermal conductivity of flake graphite/polymer composites affected by adding carbon-based nano-fillers", Carbon, 2013;57:452-459.
[101]         Liu, X. B., et al., "Preparation and properties of polyarylene ether nitrites/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites", Materials Letters, 2008;62:19-22.
[102]         Pan, D. Y., et al., "Li Storage Properties of Disordered Graphene Nanosheets", Chemistry of Materials, 2009;21:3136-3142.
[103]         Salavagione, H. J., Gomez, M. A. and Martinez, G., "Polymeric Modification of Graphene through Esterification of Graphite Oxide and Poly (vinyl alcohol)", Macromolecules, 2009;42:6331-6634
[104]         Podsiadlo, P., et al., "Ultrastrong and stiff layered polymer nanocomposites", Science, 2007;318:80-83.
[105]         Ritter, K. A., and Lyding, J. W., "Characterization of nanometer-sized, mechanically exfoliated graphene on the H-passivated Si(100) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy", Nanotechnology, 2008;19,65-71.
[106]         Avouris, P. and Dimitrakopoulos, C., "Graphene: synthesis and applications", Materials Today, 2012;15:86-97.
[107]         Li, T., et al., "Hydrothermal preparation, characterization and enhanced properties of reduced graphene-BiFeO3 nanocomposite", Materials Letters, 2013;91:42-44.
[108]         Yang, H., et al., “Tin indium oxide/graphene nanosheet nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries with enhanced lithium storage capacity and rate capability”, Electrochimica Acta, 2013;91:275-281.
[109]         Tang, Q.W., et al., “MoO2-graphene nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries”, Electrochimica Acta, 2012;79:148-153.
[110]         Berger, C., et al., “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics”. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2004;108(52):19912-19916.
[111]         Eda, G. and Chhowalla, M., "Graphene-based Composite Thin Films for Electronics", Nano Letters, 9:814-818 (2009)
[112]         Tkalya, E., et al., "Latex-based concept for the preparation of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2010;20:3035-3039.
[113]         McAllister, M. J., et al., "Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite", Chemistry of Materials, 2007;19:4396-4404.
[114]         Wang, G. X., et al., "Facile synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2008;112:8192-8195.
[115]         Berger, C., et al., "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene", Science, 2006;312:1191-1196.
[116]         Kumskov, A. S., et al., "The structure of 1D and 3D CuI nanocrystals grown within 1.5-2.5 nm single wall carbon nanotubes obtained by catalyzed chemical vapor deposition", Carbon, 2012;50:4696-4704.
[117]         Wang, X. L., et al., "Synthesis of CaCO3/graphene composite crystals for ultra-strong structural materials", Rsc Advances, 2012;2:2154-2160.
[118]         Stoberl, U., et al., "Morphology and flexibility of graphene and few-layer graphene on various substrates", Applied Physics Letters, 2008;93:56-68.
[119]         Carlsson, J. M., "Buckle or break", Nature Materials, 2007;6:801-802.
[120]         Compton, O. C., and Nguyen, S. T., "Graphene Oxide, Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Graphene: Versatile Building Blocks for Carbon-Based Materials", Small, 2010;6:711-723.
[121]         Nemes-Incze, P., et al., "Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy", Carbon, 2008;46:1435-1442.
[122]         Pereira, L. F. C., and Donadio, D., "Divergence of the thermal conductivity in uniaxially strained graphene", Physical Review B, 2013;87,121-129.
[123]         Balandin, A. A., et al., "Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene", Nano Letters, 2008;8:902-907.
[124]         Huang, Y. L. and Young, R. J., "Analysis of the Fragmentation Test for Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Model Composites by Means of Raman-Spectroscopy", Composites Science and Technology, 1994;52:505-517.
[125]         Xu, Y. X., et al., "Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008;130:5856-5859.
[126]         Vivekchand, S. R. C., et al., "Graphene-based electrochemical supercapacitors", Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2008;120:9-13.
[127]         Ghosh, A., et al., "Noncovalent Functionalization, Exfoliation, and Solubilization of Graphene in Water by Employing a Fluorescent Coronene Carboxylate", Chemistry-a European Journal, 2010;16:2700-2704.
[128]         Bernal, M. M., et al., "Comparing the effect of carbon-based nanofillers on the physical properties of flexible polyurethane foams", Journal of Materials Science, 2012;47:5673-5679.
[129]         Dinadayalane, T. C. and Leszczynski, J., "Remarkable diversity of carbon-carbon bonds: structures and properties of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene", Structural Chemistry, 2010;21:1155-1169.
[130]         Iski, E. V., et al., "Graphene at the Atomic-Scale: Synthesis, Characterization, and Modification", Advanced Functional Materials, 2013;23:2554-2564.
[131]         Kotov, N. A., "Materials science: Carbon sheet solutions", Nature, 2006;442:254-255.
[132]         Thostenson, E. T., Li, C. Y. and Chou, T. W., "Nanocomposites in context", Composites Science and Technology, 2005;65:491-516.
[133]         Schelling, P. K., and Keblinski, R., "Thermal expansion of carbon structures", Physical Review B, 2003;68:97-102.
[134]         Chang, I. H., Seo, B. S., and Kim, S. H., "Blends of a thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymer and a poly (butylene terephthalate)/organoclay nanocomposite", Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics, 2004;42:3667-3676.
[135]         Bonanni, A. and Pumera, M., "Graphene Platform for Hairpin-DNA-Based Impedimetric Genosensing", ACS Nano, 2011;5:2356-2361.
[136]         Su, Q., et al., "Composites of Graphene with Large Aromatic Molecules", Advanced Materials, 2009;21:3191-3196.
[137]         Biercuk, M. J., et al., "Carbon nanotube composites for thermal management", Applied Physics Letters, 2002;80:2767-2769.
[138]         Jang, B. Z. and Zhamu, A., "Processing of nanographene platelets (NGPs) and NGP nanocomposites: a review", Journal of Materials Science, 2008;43:5092-5101.
[139]         Bekyarova, E., et al., "Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for carbon fiber-epoxy composites", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2007;111:17865-17871.
[140]         Rai, A. K., et al., "Electrochemical and safety characteristics of TiP2O7-graphene nanocomposite anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2012;75:247-253.
[141]         Dyachkov, P. N. and Breslavskaya, N. N., "Calculations of the electronic structure of tubulenes and fullerenes with the use of data on the structure of sigma- and pi-bands of graphite", Chemical Physics Reports, 1999;18:213-225.
[142]         LeBaron, P. C., Wang, Z. and Pinnavaia, T. J., "Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview", Applied Clay Science, 1999;15:11-29.
[143]         Ivanovskii, A. L., "Fullerenes and related nanoparticles encapsulated in nanotubes: Synthesis, properties, and design of new hybrid nanostructures", Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2003;48:846-860.
[144]         Guo, S. J., et al., "Platinum Nanoparticle Ensemble-on-Graphene Hybrid Nanosheet: One-Pot, Rapid Synthesis, and Used as New Electrode Material for Electrochemical Sensing", ACS Nano, 2010;4:3959-3968.
[145]         Ijsseling, F. P., "Electrochemical Methods in Crevice Corrosion Testing - Report Prepared for the Working Party Physicochemical Methods of Corrosion - Fundamentals and Applications of the European-Federation-of-Corrosion", Werkstoffe Und Korrosion-Materials and Corrosion, 1981;32:389-390.
[146]         Du, Z. F., et al., "In situ synthesis of SnO2/graphene nanocomposite and their application as anode material for lithium ion battery", Materials Letters, 2010;64:2076-2079.
[147]         Tombros, N., et al., "Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature", Nature, 2007;448:571-574.
[148]         Park, S., et al., "Colloidal Suspensions of Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide in a Wide Variety of Organic Solvents", Nano Letters, 2009;9:1593-1597.
[149]         Morozov, S. V., et al., "Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer", Physical Review Letters, 2008;100:18-27.
[150]         Jiang, H., Huang, Y. and Hwang, K. C., "A finite-temperature continuum theory based on interatomic potentials", Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology-Transactions of the ASME, 2005;127:408-416.
[151]         Wang, J. Q. and Han, Z. D., "The combustion behavior of polyacrylate ester/graphite oxide composites", Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 2006;17:335-340.
[152]         Monakhova, T. V., et al., "Thermooxidative Degradation of Polypropylene - Graphite Compositions", Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya Seriya A, 1988;30:2415-2419.
[153]         Yu, A. P., et al., "Graphite nanoplatelet-epoxy composite thermal interface materials", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2007;111:7565-7569.
[154]         Lu, L. M., et al., "A facile one-step redox route for the synthesis of graphene/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanocomposite and their applications in biosensing", Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 2013;181:567-574.
[155]         Zhang, Y. B., et al., "Electric field modulation of galvanomagnetic properties of mesoscopic graphite", Physical Review Letters, 2005;94:54-60.
[156]         Eda, G., Fanchini, G. and Chhowalla, M., "Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:270-274.
[157]         Mounet, N. and Marzari, N., "First-principles determination of the structural, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of diamond, graphite, and derivatives", Physical Review B, 2005;71:23-34.
[158]         Boehm, H. P., Setton, R. and Stumpp, E., "Nomenclature and Terminology of Graphite-Intercalation Compounds (Iupac Recommendations 1994)", Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1994;66:1893-1901.
[159]         Hu, K. S., et al., "Ultra-Robust Graphene Oxide-Silk Fibroin Nanocomposite Membranes", Advanced Materials, 2013;25:2301-2307.
[160]         Bolotin, K. I., et al., "Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene", Solid State Communications, 2008;146:351-355.
[161]         Ramanathan, T., et al., "Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites", Nature Nanotechnology, 2008;3:327-331.
[162]         Barkauskas, J., et al., "Nanocomposite films and coatings produced by interaction between graphite oxide and Congo red", Journal of Materials Science, 2012;47:5852-5860.
[163]         Du, X. S., et al., "Synthesis and properties of poly (4,4 '-oxybis (benzene)disulfide)/graphite nanocomposites via in situ ring-opening polymerization of macrocyclic oligomers", Polymer, 2004;45:6713-6718.
[164]         Geim, A. K. and Novoselov, K. S., "The rise of graphene", Nature Materials, 2007;6:183-191.
[165]         Lv, W., et al., "Low-temperature exfoliated graphenes: vacuum-promoted exfoliation and electrochemical energy storage", ACS Nano, 2009;3(11):3730-6
[166]         Huang, L. P., et al., "Graphene: learning from carbon nanotubes", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011;21:919-929.
[167]         Seyller, T., et al., "Epitaxial graphene: a new material", Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid-State Physics, 2008;245:1436-1446.
[168]         Li, X. L., et al., "Chemically derived, ultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors", Science, 2008;319:1229-1232.
[169]         Zhang, D., et al., "Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite fibers reinforced with Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Fabrication and property analysis", Polymer, 2009;50:4189-4198.
[170]         Kim, H. and Macosko, C. W., "Morphology and properties of polyester/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites", Macromolecules, 2008;41:3317-3327.
[171]         Abboud, O., et al., "The Istanbul declaration against organ trafficking and transplant tourism", Nephrologie & Therapeutique, 2009;5:341-345.
[172]         Kandare, E.; et al., "Improving the through-thickness thermal and electrical conductivity of carbon fibre/epoxy laminates by exploiting synergy between graphene and silver nano-inclusions”, Compos. Part A; 2015; 69:72–82.
[173]         Fu, Y.-X.; et al., "Thermal conductivity enhancement of epoxy adhesive using graphene sheets as additives”, Int. J. Therm. Sci.; 2014;86:276–283.
[174]         Im, H.; Kim, J. “Thermal conductivity of a graphene oxide–carbon nanotube hybrid/epoxy composite”, Carbon; 2012;50:5429–5440.
[175]         Pan, L.; et al., "Improving thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by using functionalized graphene”, RSC Adv.; 2015;5:60596–60607.
[176]         Zhou, T. “Targeted kinetic strategy for improving the thermal conductivity of epoxy composite containing percolating multi-layer graphene oxide chains”, Express Polym. Lett.;2015;9:608–623.
[177]         Wang, Y.; et al., "Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties of Epoxy Composites Reinforced With Graphene Nanoplatelets”, Polym. Compos.;2015;36:556-565.
[178]         Tien, D.H.; et al., "Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Stycast 1266 Epoxy/Graphite Composites”, J. Korean Phys. Soc.;2011;59:2760–2764.
[179]         Chandrasekaran, S.; Seidel, C.; Schulte, K. “Preparation and characterization of graphite nano-platelet (GNP)/epoxy nano-composite: Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties”, Eur. Polym. J.;2013; 49:3878–3888.
[180]         Chatterjee, S.; et al., "Mechanical reinforcement and thermal conductivity in expanded graphene nanoplatelets reinforced epoxy composites”, Chem. Phys. Lett.;2012, 531, 6–10.
[181]         Martin-gallego, M.; et al., "Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and graphene in epoxy nanofluids and nanocomposites”, Nanoscale Res. Lett.;2011;6:1–7.
[182]         Eizenberg, M. and Blakely, J. M., "Carbon Monolayer Phase Condensation on Ni(111)", Surface Science, 1979;82:228-236.
[183]         Szabo, T., Berkesi, O. and Dekany, I., "DRIFT study of deuterium-exchanged graphite oxide", Carbon, 2005;43:3186-3189.
[184]         Fan, Y. F., et al., "Synthesis of CTAB-intercalated graphene/polypyrrole nanocomposites via in situ oxidative polymerization", Synthetic Metals, 2012;162:1815-1821.
[185]         Wang, X., Jin, J. and Song, M., "Cyanate ester resin/graphene nanocomposite: Curing dynamics and network formation", European Polymer Journal, 2012;48:1034-1041.
[186]         Chen, L., et al., "Silicone rubber/graphite nanosheet electrically conducting nanocomposite with a low percolation threshold", Polymer Composites, 2007;28:493-498.
[187]         Gomez-Navarro, C., Burghard, M. and Kern, K., "Elastic properties of chemically derived single graphene sheets", Nano Letters, 2008;8:2045-2049.
[188]         Zhang, X., et al., "Direct laser initiation and improved thermal stability of nitrocellulose/graphene oxide nanocomposites", Applied Physics Letters, 2013;102:23-45.
[189]         Si, Y. and Samulski, E. T., "Synthesis of water-soluble graphene", Nano Letters, 2008;8:1679-1682.
[190]         Hung, M. T., et al., "Heat conduction in graphite-nanoplatelet-reinforced polymer nanocomposites", Applied Physics Letters, 2006;89:12-19.
[191]         Wang, X., et al., "Synergistic Effect of Graphene on Antidripping and Fire Resistance of Intumescent Flame Retardant Poly (butylene succinate) Composites", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2011;50:5376-5383.
[192]         Lian, P. C., et al., "High reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2011;56:4532-4539.
[193]         Guo, W., et al., "Nitroxide radical polymer/graphene nanocomposite as an improved cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries", Electrochimica Acta, 2012;72:81-86.
[194]         Hsu, C.-H.; et al., "Physical study of room-temperature-cured epoxy/thermally reduced graphene oxides with various contents of oxygen-containing groups", Polym. Int.;2014; 63:1765–1770.
[195]         Yang, Y.; et al., "Enhancing graphene reinforcing potential in composites by hydrogen passivation induced dispersion", Sci. Rep.;2013;3:2086–2093.
[196]         Shiu, S.-C.; Tsai, J.-L. “Characterizing thermal and mechanical properties of graphene/epoxy nanocomposites", Compos. Part B;2014; 56:691–697.
[197]         Yu, G.; Wu, P. “Effect of chemically modified graphene oxide on the phase separation behaviour and properties of an epoxy/polyetherimide binary system", Polym. Chem.;2014; 5:96–104.
[198]         Liu, T.; Zhao, Z.; Tjiu, W.W.; Lv, J.; Wei, C. “Preparation and characterization of epoxy nanocomposites containing surface-modified graphene oxide", J. Appl. Polym. Sci.;2014; 131:40236–40242.
[199]         Liu, F.; Guo, K. “Reinforcing epoxy resin through covalent integration of functionalized graphene nanosheets”, Polym. Adv. Technol.;2014; 25:418–423.
[200]         Guan, L.-Z.; et al., "Toward effective and tunable interphases in graphene oxide/epoxy composites by grafting different chain lengths of polyetheramine onto graphene oxide” J. Mater. Chem. A;2014; 2:15058–15069.
[201]         Martin-Gallego, M.; et al., "Comparison of filler percolation and mechanical properties in graphene and carbon nanotubes filled epoxy nanocomposites” Eur. Polym. J.;2013; 49:1347–1353.
[202]         Ribeiro, H.; et al., "Glass transition improvement in epoxy/graphene composites” J. Mater. Sci.;2013; 48:7883–7892.
[203]         Wajid, A.S.; et al., "High-Performance Pristine Graphene/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Mechanical and Electrical Properties” Macromol. Mater. Eng.;2013; 298:339–347.
[204]         Zhang, X.; et al., "Strengthened magnetic epoxy nanocomposites with protruding nanoparticles on the graphene nanosheets” Polymer (Guildf) ;2013;54:3594–3604.
[205]         Wang, X.; et al., "Functionalization of graphene with grafted polyphosphamide for flame retardant epoxy composites: Synthesis, flammability and mechanism” Polym. Chem.;2014;5: 1145-1154.
[206]          Zhou, M., Zhai, Y. M. and Dong, S. J., "Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing Platform Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide", Analytical Chemistry, 2009;81:5603-5613.
[207]         Liang, J. J., et al., "Infrared-Triggered Actuators from Graphene-Based Nanocomposites", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009;113:9921-9927.
[208]         Jiang, H., et al., "Thermal expansion of single wall carbon nanotubes", Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology-Transactions of the ASME, 2004;126:265-270.
[209]         Peres, N. M. R., Neto, A. H. C. and Guinea, F., "Conductance quantization in mesoscopic graphene", Physical Review B, 2006;73:18-25.
[210]         Wu, J. S., Pisula, W. and Mullen, K., "Graphenes as potential material for electronics", Chemical Reviews, 2007;107:718-747.
[211]         Mattausch, A. and Pankratov, O., "Density functional study of graphene overlayers on SiC", Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid-State Physics, 2008;245:1425-1435.
[212]         Chatterjee, S., et al., "Size and synergy effects of nanofiller hybrids including graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes in mechanical properties of epoxy composites", Carbon, 2012;50:5380-5386.
[213]         Schartel, B., et al., "Fire retardancy of polypropylene/flax blends", Polymer, 2003;44:6241-6250.
[214]         Kim, K. S., et al., "Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes", Nature, 2009;457:706-710.
[215]         Berber, S., Kwon, Y. K. and Tomanek, D., "Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes", Physical Review Letters, 2000;84:4613-4616.
[216]         Zeng, Q. O., et al., "Self-Assembled Graphene-Enzyme Hierarchical Nanostructures for Electrochemical Biosensing", Advanced Functional Materials, 2010;20:3366-3372.
[217]         Geim, A. K., "Graphene: Status and Prospects", Science, 2009;324:1530-1534.
[218]         Wang, C. Y., et al., "Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Paper Electrodes Used in Lithium Batteries", Chemistry of Materials, 2009;21:2604-2606.