Document Type : Research Paper
Authors
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract
Keywords
Main Subjects
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Annular FG Porous Sandwich Plates Reinforced by Graphene Platelets
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
KEYWORDS 

ABSTRACT 
Sandwich porous plates; GPLs; Nonlinear dynamic analysis; MHSDT; Newmark’s integration method. 
In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic analysis of porous annular sandwich plates reinforced with graphene platelets (GPLs) under different boundary conditions is investigated. The Gaussian Random Field (GRF) alongside with HalpinTsai micromechanics model are used for the variational Poisson’s ratio and effective material property of the GPLs which are distributed in two forms of symmetric and nonsymmetric patterns with different porosity dispersion models. Using VonKarman nonlinear relations and different plate theories, the timedependent governing equations are obtained and then solved using the dynamic relaxation (DR) method combined with implicit Newmark’s integration technique. Finally, some key elements namely: GPL weight fractions and distributions, porosity coefficients and dispersions, different loadings, boundary conditions, and the effects of thicknesstoradius ratio are discussed in detail. The results show that with an increase in porosity, the difference between the results of FSDT and MHSDT greatens. Also, a significant increase in plate stiffness is observed by adding a small amount of GPL to the porous core of the sandwich plate. 
The strength and stability of structures have always been two important principles in science that have attracted the attention of many scientists and researchers. For this purpose, for instance, in the construction of highspeed trains, space rockets, defense industries, and space shuttles they have tried to make materials as advanced and more resistant to various conditions. Due to their high tensile strength, sandwich structures have always been of great importance to manufacturers they are generally made of two or multilayered composites usually with a central core fabricated of foams like polystyrene, honeycombs, balsa woods or other equivalent substances and two face sheets made of epoxies, glass, carbon, sheet metals or any other similar material.
Dynamic analysis of structures and plates with annular and circular geometries by various methods and theories has been carried out by many scientists and scholars because of their exclusive geometry and specific behavior under any sort of static and dynamic loadings and conditions. Working on determination of the dynamic response of large rectangular plates, Beskot and Leung [1] obtained the effects of viscoelastic damping values with the combination of FD, FE, and Laplace transform. Nath et al. [2] used the Chebyshev polynomial collocation point to couple with the Newmark kβ scheme for the timedependent equations on plates and shells. Smaill [3] presented the importance of plate nonlinearity for the dynamic response of circular plates on Pasternak elastic foundations. Various numerical works are offered by Sirnivasan and Ramachandra [4] for different bore sizes on axisymmetric dynamic responses of annular and circular bimodulus plates. A study on the failure and dynamics of circular plates was done by Shen and Jones [5]. Day and Rao [6] studied the transient response of circular membranes and plates with the use of numerical Laplace transforms and finite difference in conjunction with numerical inversion technique, they presented the influence of interior and exterior viscoelastic damping on the responses. Bassi et al. [7] obtained pulsated results for sandwich plates using the FE method and Galerkin’s models. Submitting a new semianalytical method for analyzing the vibrations of circular plates, Peng et al. [8] showed the accuracy of the proposed method among equivalent procedures. Damped schematics of a thick uniform plate under explosion loadings were analyzed including the rotary inertia influences by Aiyesimi et al. [9]. With the utilization of the FSDT of the Reddy plates, Eipakchi and Khadem Moshir [10] represented the viscoelastic resolutions for the transient response of annular plates. These are just a few of the limited and relevant aspects of the dynamic analysis of circular and annular plates with various material properties in the free literature done by individuals implementing various solving methods, showing the importance of such types of geometry in various engineering issues.
Failure and difficulties in achieving satisfying results have always been major obstacles for scientists, thus with the introduction of functionally graded materials, they have created a new direction of discovery to lead individuals in the field of engineering to facilitate and overcome the obstacles ahead. An FG structure consists of variations in compositional properties through the volume with specific functions of the material, frequently maintaining a ceramic matter embedded in a metallic matrix which will lead to the increase in thermal resistance, corrosion persistence, toughness in strength, and stiffness of the material. Moreover, even with the manufacturing of sandwich materials, one can consider another way of strengthening them for the tensile and compressive stresses. In this way, sandwich structures are usually considered from twolayer to multilayer composites, and for example, in threelayer plates, the middle layer is considered from a type of foam or FG mode, and the outer plates are from one metal material. Using the sinusoidal shear deformation theory of plates, Zenkour [11] investigated the critical buckling and natural frequency of FGM sandwich plates. Subjecting FG circular plates under lowvelocity impact loadings, Dai et al. [12] studied the significance of the primary velocity of a striking ball in the responses of the plate using the Newmark method. Three years later, Dai [13] investigated the transient response of an FG multilayered circular plate with central disks to demonstrate the difference in geometry parameters of singlelayer and sandwich plates. Dynamical bending of stepped variational width annular and circular functionally graded plates has been examined by MollaAlipour [14] employing a semianalytical method on the basis of power series. Effects of porosity on bending, buckling, free vibrations and dynamic instability behaviors of different FG plates and sandwich structures [1521] are done by some researchers on several geometries of beams, plates, and cylindrical shells with the application of various theories namely: FE, FD, DQM, ChebyshevRitz, HSDT, and isogeometric analysis. Babaei et al. [22], acquired natural frequencies and responses of FG annular sector plates and cylindrical shells with the acquisition of 3D elasticity theory. Implementing the kinetic dynamic relaxation method and FSDT formulations, Esmaeilzadeh et al. [23] developed a nonlocal strain gradient model for the numerical investigation of bilateral FG nanoplates with porous properties. Under pulse loadings, using a KelvinVoigt model, forced motions of viscoelastic FG porous beams are investigated by the use of the adopted FE method for the first time by Akbas et al. [24].
With further observations, porosity a wellnoted item used in many works is one useful factor to overrule the flaws in mechanical properties of structures, despite their advantages such as ductility reductant, creep resistance, adhesion regressive and owning light weighting features, they contain a major defect which causes decreasing structural stiffness and strength. Thus, scientists and researchers have come to the conclusion of embedding certain structures with micro and nano fillers to overcome this deficiency. Free vibrations and buckling of graphene platelets (GPLs) reinforced FGM porous beams is the subject of an article surveyed by Kitipornchai et al. [25] based on the theory of Timoshenko beams and Ritz method for the natural fundamental frequency of the nanocomposite structure. On the same geometry with the same material properties, Chen et al. [26] studied the nonlinear responses and postbuckling behavior of GPLreinforced material using the Von Karman nonlinear large deflections. Yang et al. [27], based on the ChebyshevRitz method and firstorder shear deformation theory of plates, acted on the investigation of vibrations and buckling of porous nanocomposite plates reinforced by GPLs. Polit et al. [28] investigated the stability and bending results of porous GPLreinforced curved beams based on the theory of higherorder shear deformation of plates by the introduction of Navier’s procedure for the analytical results. Li et al. [29] studied the nonlinear responses and buckling solutions of a porous sandwich rectangular plate with WinklerPasternak foundations reinforced by graphene platelets for the observations of porosity effects and GPL weight fraction and loading velocity influence on the composite structure behavior. Esmaeilzadeh and Kadkhodayan [30] aimed the investigation of transient behaviors of a moving porous FGM sandwich rectangular nanoplate reinforced by GPLs and effects of nonlocal strain gradient parameters, porosity, GPL weight fraction, and variant nanoplate velocities are considered in this paper. Safarpour et al. [31] considered a parametric 3D bending and frequency study on annular and circular functionally graded porous plates embedded with graphene nanofillers using DQM. Based on the theory of elasticity, Rahimi et al. [32], discussed on 3D static and vibrations of porous FG cylindrical shells in 2019. Zhao et al. [33], worked on instability factors affecting dynamic response of porous FG arches consolidated with GPL, based on EulerBernoulli classical theory. For the dynamic instable territory, a Galerkin approach was applied for the derivation of MathieuHill equation. Their results show that by adding a small amount of GPL and with the use of uniform asymmetric distribution of porosities in arch composite plates, one can increase stability and resistance to a considerable extent. Lieu et al. [34] presented an isogeometric Bezier formulation for transient response and bending analysis of FG porous plates reinforced by GPL, deriving the equations of motions using a generalized HSDT in couple with Bezier isogeometric formulation and Newmark integration method for the timevarying equations. Based on modified strain gradient and firstorder plates theory, Arshid et al. [35] studied on bending, buckling, and free vibrations of annular microscaled functionally graded porous plate which is reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets using the GDQ method. Results for wave propagation through FGGPL reinforced porous rectangular plates were accomplished by Gao et al. [36] using three general plate theories namely CPT, FSDT, and TSDT. Results show that different plate theories can have accurate results on a lower number of waves, whilst the FSDT and TSDT show better results for a higher number of waves. Nejadi et al. [37] considered studies on vibrations and stability of sandwich pipes with porosities and GPLs using the differential quadrature method. In their paper, the essential impact of the velocity of fluid flow on the stability of the structure is illustrated. TAO and Dai [38] investigated the postbuckling of cylindrical sandwich porous shells with GPL reinforcement based on higher order shear deformation theory. Results show with more addition of GPL to the FG core, one can acquire much strength in post buckling behaviors. In 2020, Khayat et al. [39], analyzed uncertain dissemination over smart porous sandwich GPL reinforced cylindrical shells based on HSDT in conjunction with a Fourier differential quadrature method. Nguyen et al. [4044] conducted several researches investigating the influence of porosity coefficient, weight fraction of GPLs, electrical voltage, material length scale parameter, boundary condition and dynamic loads on FG porous plates that are reinforced with GPLs. They proposed an efficient numerical model based on refined plate theory and isogeometric analysis to predict the static and dynamic characteristics of functionally graded microplates reinforced with graphene platelets. One disadvantage of the GPLs, that can be significantly challenging, is called the GPLs agglomeration phenomenon that can negatively impact the properties of the resulting nanocomposite material. The phenomenon occurs due to the strong van der Waals forces between the GPLs, which can lead to the formation of large aggregates. The presence of these aggregates can reduce the effective surface area and increase the stress concentrations in the nanocomposite, leading to a decrease in mechanical strength and an increase in brittleness. Nguyen et al. [45] studied the transient performance of agglomerated graphene platelets reinforced porous sandwich plates based on higherorder shear deformation plate theory and using a NURBSbased isogeometric analysis framework.
Through recent years, the combination of graphene nanofillers and porosity has been the focus of many researchers. Therefore, many works including bending, buckling, and postbuckling, free and forced vibrations are done and developed on various circular, rectangular, and shell geometries using various numerical solution and integration methods. With further observations and surveys through open literature, there was no evidence of dealing with nonlinear dynamics of FG annular porous plates reinforced with graphene platelets. This paper aims the study of dynamic analysis of annular functionally graded porous GPLreinforced sandwich plates using FSDT and MHSDT with two GPL distribution patterns and two porosity dispersions, under a simple harmonic and an impact loading with clamped and simply supported boundary conditions. GPLs reinforcement phase in this work is distributed through the core of the sandwich plate. In sandwich plate structures, the distribution of the GPLs reinforcement phase in the core layer can enhance mechanical properties, such as compressive and shear strength [29]. Moreover, distributing GPLs in the core layer can create a highly interconnected network within the core material and the mechanical properties and resistance to fatigue and impact of the sandwich structure can be improved [30]. The timedependent equations are derived by the implementation of the principle of minimum potential energy and then solved using Newmark’s direct integration method in combination with the viscous dynamic relaxation technique, which has not been previously employed in the literature for analyzing the dynamic behavior of sandwich structures. Finally, the effects of porosity coefficient and dispersions, GPL weight fraction and dispensations and thicknesstoradius ratios are illustrated.
As seen in Fig. 1, the annular FG sandwich graphenereinforced porous plate is shown with an inner radius and outer radius , the total thickness of (including = core and = face layers thicknesses) in and directions, originated the Cartesian coordinate is assumed at the center of the plate. The whole thickness of the plate includes .
Fig. 1. Geometrical illustration of annular graphenereinforced porous sandwich plate
Figure 2 represents two GPL distributions, namely A and B with different porosity dispersion patterns as I and II for symmetric and asymmetric material. The volume fraction of the GPL as is assumed to be varying along the axis, with maximum values of and (see relation (7)).
According to Fig. 2, E(z), G(z), and ρ(z) which are named elasticity moduli, shear moduli, and mass density of the porous GPLreinforced sandwich plate, respectively, are defined as below for nonuniform graphene distributions [46]:


in which is defined as [47]:
For asymmetric porosity dispersion
For symmetric porosity dispersion 

Also, denotes porosity coefficient
( ) and is the representative of the mass density coefficient. On the basis of the closedcell cellular solid structures under the Gaussian Random Field scheme (GRF), it can be expressed to determine the mass density coefficient as [48]:
. 

Furthermore, based on the micromechanical model of HalpinTsai, the effective elastic moduli of the porous core can be defined as [49]:
. 

where and are the GPL property factors, also depict the young’s moduli of the metallic matrix. For the unknown values of the GPL factors, we have [49]:
Fig. 2. GPL distributions and porosity dispersion patterns


where , and are the average length, width, and thickness of the GPLs, respectively. Also, based on the GRF scheme, the varying Poisson’s ratio of the core is obtained by [50]:



(6) 
As depicted in Fig. 2, for different GPL distribution patterns, the volume fraction distribution ( ) along the z direction is given by [51]:

GPL distribution A GPL distribution B

in which the relationship between the volume fraction and weight fraction of the GPLs is defined by [52]:

(8) 
Utilizing the rule of mixture, and the mass density and Poisson’s ratio of the GPLreinforced platelets, respectively, can be calculated as below [53]:

(9) 
in which , , , , and are mass density, Poisson’s ratio, and volume fraction of GPLs and metals, respectively.
Fig. 3. Modules of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio along the thickness of the sandwich plate for different GPLs distributions and porosity patterns
Modules of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio of the sandwich plate are illustrated in Fig. 3 for different GPLs distributions and porosity patterns using the properties expressed in Table 3.
Based on the modified higherorder shear deformation theory (primarily proposed by [54]), the displacement field of the plate is described by:
MHSDT =

where the displacements of the composite plate are formed of , and in the orthogonal coordinate system. Moreover, and are the displacements along r and z axes and also is the rotation terms of the middle surface (i.e.,
z = 0). Furthermore, the term in MHSDT is a mathematical parameter that cannot be physically defined.
Besides, f(z) is a functional term that can be presumed as required in calculation. It should be noted that considering f(z) as 0, one can consider the firstorder shear deformation theory of the plates (FSDT) for the displacement field.
The simplicity and efficiency of using this theory are considering various functions in the displacement field and obtaining accurate results for different conditions.
Considering the VonKarman nonlinear large deflection relation, the strain field accommodating with the displacement field of equation (10) is defined as follows:


in which normal strain fields and are directed towards and , respectively, and is the shear strain term. According to Hook’s law, the stress field for the core and face layers, are:




For GPL porous core 

Stress and moment resultants are defined as:
( ) = , 



Substituting equations into
leads to the following constitutive relations:
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
. 

Where the elastic constants are expressed as:
( , , , , , )= 

( , , ) 

in which expresses the stiffness matrix of the layer number (n) as follows:


The equations of motion can be obtained by implementation of the principle of minimum potential energy, which is expressed by the following integral:


in which , and are strain energy changes due to internal loads, work changes due to external loads, and virtual kinetic energy changes, respectively.
Changes in strain energy, virtual work, and kinetic energy of the whole system are defined as:


For instance, by substituting strain components in terms of displacement field into the variations in strain energy relation yields:
. 

By integrating over the thickness of Eq. and substituting the stress and moment results, the following equation for the total thickness of the plate will be obtained:
. 

Integrating from each term of relation and implementing the fractional integration technique, results in the below relation in which the singleton integrals show the boundary conditions and the dual integrals represent the governing equations:




By introducing mass inertia terms as follows:
j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6 

The kinetic energy changes can be expressed by:


Finally, substituting Eq. into Eq. and giving zero to , , and , the equations of motion will result in [55]:
. 

We could also obtain the static equilibrium equations in terms of displacement field , , and as follows:
, 


, 


, 


. 


To complete the formulations, equations should be joined with a set of initial and boundary conditions, as below:

To discretize the timedependent equations of motion of annular GPLreinforced porous sandwich composite plate, the implicit Newmark method is utilized in this paper, and in order to solve the partial differential equations of motion, the viscous dynamic relaxation method (VDR) with central finite difference technique is exploited.
The main aim of the Newmark approach is to discretize the timevarying equations using a reduced Taylor series by determination of accelerations and velocities in real forms at the next time step ( ) as:
, . 

where and are Newmark’s constant parameters which can be determined to gain integration stability and accuracy, taken as and (average acceleration method), is the time interval, the difference of current and prior realtime displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively. Also, represents the displacements ( = , ) at and Placing equations and into the equilibrium equations will become:





(44)


(45)

where the following are Newmark coefficients:
, , 

Hence, for the sake of briefness, the following shrunken term should be written for the equations of motion:


in which and are the equivalent load vector and stiffness matrix at DR iteration.
Based on the dynamic relaxation method, to obtain stable solutions, the governing equations of motion will be converted from a static space into a fictitious dynamic one via the transformation of boundary value into initial value problems. The conversion would happen through the addition of damping and inertia terms to equilibrium equations [56]:


in which and in the above relation are fictitious diametrical mass and damping matrices respectively, also and are the acceleration and velocity, respectively. Accurate estimations of mass matrix and damping factors are the criteria of convergence and stability in the DR method, thus based on the theorem of Gershgorin, they will be estimated as [56]:
, 



where in, is , , and w also known as freedom degrees of structure, is critical damping coefficient at spatial node, depicts fictitious incremental time which is generally taken as unity and the element of the stiffness matrix is determined as . To calculate the stiffness matrix, we have:
. 

in which are vectors of approximate solution. A set of finite difference statements should be written in order to finalize the iterative procedure by using the acceleration and velocity terms as follows:


. 

The velocities at the next time step can be defined as [57]:


Now out of balance force vector and kinetic energy of the system can be calculated as:




In each time step by applying integration on velocities, the displacements will be calculated by:


The VDR process is continued with iterative steps to fulfill desired convergence criteria, i.e., and The following flowchart (Fig. 4) explains the VDR method in combination with the Newmark direct integration technique:
Fig. 4. Newmark direct integration in combination with the Dynamic relaxation method
As a first example to prove the accuracy of the present study in this section, the maximum deflection of a circular FG plate based on FSDT is compared with those of Reddy et al. [58]. The plate is subjected to a uniform distributed load with clamped and simply supported boundary conditions. The effect of different power law indices with three thicknesstoradius ratios are presented in the following. The material properties and uniform load which are used in this example are:
, , , , , , . 

Tables 1 and 2 show the great consistency of the viscous damping DR method with those gained by Reddy et al. [58].
Table 1. Comparison of nondimensional maximum deflection in simply supported condition with Ref. [58]

Thickness radius ratio, 


Reddy et al. [58] 
Present study 

n 






0 
10.481 
10.623 
10.822 
10.469 
10.623 
10.820 
2 
5.539 
5.610 
5.708 
5.534 
5.609 
5.706 
4 
5.153 
5.217 
5.307 
5.155 
5.219 
5.308 
8 
4.810 
4.870 
4.954 
4.810 
4.864 
4.955 
10 
4.712 
4.772 
4.855 
4.711 
4.764 
4.857 
50 
4.291 
4.338 
4.428 
4.286 
4.338 
4.430 
100 
4.223 
4.280 
4.359 
4.220 
4.278 
4.358 
1000 
4.158 
4.214 
4.293 
4.155 
4.218 
4.292 
10e05 
4.151 
4.207 
4.285 
4.150 
4.204 
4.285 
Table 2. Comparison of nondimensional maximum deflection in clamped supported condition with Ref. [58]

Thickness radius ratio, 


Reddy et al. [58] 
Present study 

n 






0 
2.639 
2.781 
2.979 
2.635 
2.778 
2.971 
2 
1.444 
1.515 
1.613 
1.441 
1.511 
1.614 
4 
1.320 
1.384 
1.473 
1.317 
1.374 
1.476 
8 
1.217 
1.278 
1.362 
1.215 
1.275 
1.360 
10 
1.190 
1.250 
1.333 
1.188 
1.240 
1.333 
50 
1.080 
1.137 
1.216 
1.078 
1.134 
1.219 
100 
1.063 
1.119 
1.199 
1.054 
1.118 
1.198 
1000 
1.047 
1.103 
1.182 
1.048 
1.107 
1.182 
10e05 
1.045 
1.101 
1.180 
1.042 
1.101 
1.180 
For a second example to prove the validity and precision of the Newmark integration method, the results of forced vibration analysis under impulsive loading with simply supported boundary conditions are compared with those reported by Ref. [59]. Since there is no evidence based on dynamic analysis of annular FG sandwich porous plates reinforced by graphene platelets in open literature, the following sample is presented in which the plate is degraded into a single layer FG annular plate conforming a powerlaw function with varying Poisson’s ratio based on MoriTanaka scheme through different material grading indices whose material properties are:
,
. 

Figure 5 shows normalized nondimensional deflection at normalized radius point
versus nondimensional time with . The results show the efficiency and accuracy of the procedure and are found to be in great consistency with the analytical solution of Ref. [59].
Fig. 5. Comparison study for the dynamic behavior of simply supported FG annular plate with different power law indices under impulsive loading.
To carry out the convergence study to state the number of spatial nodes, the following results are achieved for both boundary conditions based on FSDT and MHSDT. For instance, nondimensional deflection of clampedclamped porous GPL reinforced annular plate under an impulsive loading ( is illustrated in Fig. 6 in terms of time for different node numbers. From the results, the 40 and 30 nodes for FSDT and MHSDT, respectively, are considered for the analysis of the entire process because their responses have acceptable precision with suitable time of analysis.
Fig. 6. Illustrations of the number of spatial nodes with GPL distribution A, Porosity dispersion II and , , for (a) FSDT and (b) MHSDT
It is noticed that the same number of nodes are used for simply supported conditions with and different GPL distributions, porosity coefficients, and loadings. From Fig. 6 and similar analyses for convergence study, it can be concluded that modifiedhigher order theory can achieve more efficient and accurate results with fewer number of nodes.
This section is devoted to investigating the influence of some substantial factors namely porosity dispersion and coefficients, GPL distribution and weight fractions, aspect ratio, and boundary conditions under two types of loadings on dynamic results of the GPLreinforced porous FGM annular sandwich plate. The isotropic face sheets are assumed to be completely interconnected with the porous core and have the same properties as the metallic matrix of the core. Implemented material properties of the sandwich plate are taken from [49] shown in Table 3:
Table 3. The material property of GPLreinforced porous core and isotropic face sheets [49]

Elasticity moduli (Gpa) 
Density (Kg/m^{3}) 
Poisson’s ratio 
GPL (core) 
1010 
1062.5 
0.186 
Aluminum (Face sheets and metallic matrix) 
68.3 
2689.8 
0.34 
To carry out the parametric study, an annular graphene platelet reinforced porous sandwich plate with different aspect ratios and geometric parameters with (
) and (
), and are assumed in this section. Also, two types of loadings, an impact, and a simple harmonic excitation, are applied on the upper surface of the sandwich plate as follows:
,


For all cases, the nondimensional dynamic deflections are computed with the following loading specifications at normalized point R which are defined below:
,

(62) 
Also, the GPL parameters are taken as
, and
The effect of thicknesstoradius ratio for the FSDT and MHSDT subjected to an impact loading with SS and CC boundary conditions and
are illustrated in figures 7 and 8 for impact and harmonic loadings, respectively. As shown in Figures 7 and 8, the difference between FSDT and MHSDT becomes greater as the thickness of the FG sandwich annular plate is increased. One reason for this occurrence is the lack of accuracy in FSDT for thicker plates due to the consideration of shear strain as linear, hence with higherorder displacement fields, one can achieve displacements with higher accuracy. Also, it can be observed that the mentioned differences are more noticeable in SS boundary conditions compared to CC ones.

Fig. 7. Effects of aspect ratio on the dynamic behavior of sandwich annular plate subjected to impact loading with , , for (a), (b) 

Fig. 8. Effects of aspect ratio on the dynamic behavior of sandwich annular plate subjected to harmonic loading with , , for (a), (b) 
Nondimensional deflection versus dimensionless time ( ) for two graphene distributions A and B with different porosity dispersions namely I and II under impact and harmonic loadings are shown in figures 9 and 10, respectively. As seen in Figures 9 and 10, the effect of weight fraction on the dynamic behavior of sandwich porous plate is also considered for both theories of MHSDT and FSDT with different thicknesstoradius ratios and boundary conditions. As shown in Fig. 9,
adding to the porous core of the sandwich plate, the flexural rigidity will increase with the addition of to the porous core of sandwich plate, the flexural rigidity will increase significantly, for instance, this increase is about 27.2% for porosity dispersion II in FSDT and 25% in MHSDT. Similarly, using porosity dispersion I, this increase is about 14.2% and 14.8% for FSDT and MHSDT, respectively. As illustrated in Fig. 10 for GPL distribution B and clampedclamped supported porous sandwich annular plate with h⁄r_o =0.15 under a harmonic loading, with the addition of only 0.8 wt.% to the porous plate, an increase in bending rigidity is observed. In this case, the values of 16.2% and 13.6% are seen for dispersions II and I in FSDT and the ones of 17.9% and 13.9%, respectively, in MSHDT. Also, as observed by adding more GPL to the porous core leads to a great decrease in the amplitude of vibrational waves of the whole structure in which the results for MHSDT are observed to be more accurate amongst the FSDTs by revealing more stable peak point kinetic energy at the end of each Dynamic Relaxation algorithm. Furthermore, as figures 9 and 10 illustrate, for thicker plates, porosity dispersion II combined with GPL distributions A and B reveal higher deflection changes in the maximum porosity coefficient between MHSDT and FSDT. The greater the porosity coefficient, the more reduction in the stiffness of the plate, therefore the following particularly discusses the effect of the porosity coefficient on the dynamic history of porous sandwich annular plate reinforced by graphene platelets.


Fig. 9. Effect of GPL weight fraction on the dynamic behavior of an SS edged porous sandwich plate subjected to an impact loading using graphene distribution A 

Fig. 10. Effect of GPL weight fraction on dynamic behavior of a CC edged porous sandwich plate subjected to a harmonic loading using graphene distribution B with 
Figure 11 shows the dynamic behavior of a CC edged porous sandwich plate subjected to impact and harmonic loadings in graphene distribution A and porosity dispersions I, II with based on both FSDT and MHSDT. The GPL weight fraction is considered a constant amount of 0.6% in this section and the porosity coefficient is changing from 0.2 to 0.8. The stiffness of the plate shows better reinforcement behavior in graphene distribution A combined with porosity dispersion II as the porosity coefficient greatens.
Figure 12 discusses the dynamic response of an SS conditioned graphenereinforced sandwich annular plate under impact loading with based on both theories with GPL distribution B and porosity distributions I and II. It shows that the same as clamped boundary conditions, the porosity dispersion II has a bigger influence on the strengthening of the porous core in simply supported conditions. Comparing the time history results in figures 7 to 12 with respect to the strength reinforcing of the plates leads to the following best order of composition of porosity and GPL distributions which is (GPL APorosity II), (GPL Bporosity II), (GPL APorosity II) and (GPL BPorosity I).


Fig. 11. Effect of porosity on the dynamic behavior of a CCedged porous sandwich plate subjected to impact and harmonic loadings with graphene distribution A 

Fig. 12. Effect of porosity on the dynamic behavior of an SSedged porous sandwich plate subjected to an impact loading with graphene distribution B and 
Ultimately, in order to assess the relative efficacy of each combined GPL and porosity pattern, the outcomes of an impulsive loading on the plate are presented in Figure 13. The figure demonstrates that the optimal reinforcement capacity is achieved through the implementation of GPL distribution A in conjunction with porosity dispersion II.

Fig. 13. Effect of GPL distributions and porosity patterns in terms of time history for CC edged porous 
This paper investigates the dynamic analysis of annular functionally graded porous GPLreinforced sandwich plates based on both MHSDT and FSDT and different boundary conditions. According to closedcell cellular solids with Gaussian Random Field and HalpinTsai micromechanics, the effective material properties of the porous core are developed. The Newmark direct integration technique in combination with the viscous Dynamic Relaxation method is applied to solve timedependent equations of motion. In fact, the primary and innovative aspect of this approach lies in the combination of the viscous dynamic relaxation method with the Newmark integration method, which has not been previously employed in the literature for sandwich structures. Additionally, the utilization of the modified higherorder shear deformation theory, two graphene distributions, and two porosity dispersions containing various GPL weight fractions and pore coefficients are considered for the porous core. Considering the dynamic behavior of porous sandwich plates under impact and harmonic loads with SS and CC boundary conditions and different aspect ratios, some remarkable points are concluded as follows:
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this manuscript.
References
[1] Beskos, D. & Leung, K., 1984. Dynamic response of plate systems by combining finite differences, finite elements and laplace transform. Computers & structures, 19 (56), pp.763775.
[2] Nath, Y., Dumir, P. & Bhatiaf, R., 1985. Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of circular plates and shallow spherical shells using the collocation method. International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 21 (3), pp.565578.
[3] Smaill, J., 1990. Dynamic response of circular plates on elastic foundations: Linear and nonlinear deflection. Journal of sound and vibration, 139 (3), pp.487502.
[4] Srinivasan, R. & Ramachandra, L., 1990. Axisymmetric nonlinear dynamic response of bimodulus annular plates.
[5] Shen, W.Q. & Jones, N., 1993. Dynamic response and failure of fully clamped circular plates under impulsive loading. International journal of impact engineering, 13 (2), pp.259278.
[6] Dey, S. & Rao, V.T., 1997. Transient response of circular plates and membranes: A numerical approach. International journal of mechanical sciences, 39 (12), pp.14051413.
[7] Bassi, A., Genna, F. & Symonds, P., 2003. Anomalous elastic–plastic responses to short pulse loading of circular plates. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 28 (1), pp.6591.
[8] Peng, J.S., Yuan, Y.Q., Yang, J. & Kitipornchai, S., 2009. A semianalytic approach for the nonlinear dynamic response of circular plates. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33 (12), pp.43034313.
[9] Aiyesimi, Y., Mohammed, A. & Sadiku, S., 2011. A finite element analysis of the dynamic responses of a thick uniform elastic circular plate subjected to an exponential blast loading. American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 1 (2), pp.5762.
[10] Eipakchi, H. & Khadem Moshir, S., 2020. Dynamic response determination of viscoelastic annular plates using fsdt–perturbation approach. Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 51 (1), pp.98106.
[11] Zenkour, A., 2005. A comprehensive analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates: Part 2—buckling and free vibration. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 42 (1819), pp.52435258.
[12] Dai, H.L., Guo, Z.Y. & Yang, L., 2013. Nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded materials circular plates subject to lowvelocity impact. Journal of Composite Materials, 47 (22), pp.27972807.
[13] Dai, H.L., Dai, T. & Cheng, S.K., 2015. Transient response analysis for a circular sandwich plate with an fgm central disk. Journal of Mechanics, 31 (4), pp.417426.
[14] MollaAlipour, M., 2016. Dynamic behavior analysis of fg circular and annular plates with stepped variations of thickness under various load. Modares Mechanical Engineering, 16 (7), pp.251260.
[15] Arshid, E. & Khorshidvand, A.R., 2018. Free vibration analysis of saturated porous fg circular plates integrated with piezoelectric actuators via differential quadrature method. ThinWalled Structures, 125, pp.220233.
[16] Chen, D., Yang, J. & Kitipornchai, S., 2019. Buckling and bending analyses of a novel functionally graded porous plate using chebyshevritz method. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 19 (1), pp.157170.
[17] CuongLe, T., Nguyen, K.D., NguyenTrong, N., Khatir, S., NguyenXuan, H. & AbdelWahab, M., 2021. A threedimensional solution for free vibration and buckling of annular plate, conical, cylinder and cylindrical shell of fg porouscellular materials using iga. Composite Structures, 259, pp.113216.
[18] Daikh, A.A. & Zenkour, A.M., 2019. Effect of porosity on the bending analysis of various functionally graded sandwich plates. Materials Research Express, 6 (6), pp.065703.
[19] Daikh, A.A. & Zenkour, A.M., 2019. Free vibration and buckling of porous powerlaw and sigmoid functionally graded sandwich plates using a simple higherorder shear deformation theory. Materials Research Express, 6 (11), pp.115707.
[20] Fouda, N., ElMidany, T. & Sadoun, A., 2017. Bending, buckling and vibration of a functionally graded porous beam using finite elements. Journal of applied and computational mechanics, 3 (4), pp.274282.
[21] Rahmani, M., Mohammadi, Y. & Kakavand, F., 2019. Vibration analysis of different types of porous fg circular sandwich plates. ADMT Journal, 12 (3), pp.6375.
[22] Babaei, M., Hajmohammad, M.H. & Asemi, K., 2020. Natural frequency and dynamic analyses of functionally graded saturated porous annular sector plate and cylindrical panel based on 3d elasticity. Aerospace Science and Technology, 96, pp.105524.
[23] Esmaeilzadeh, M., Golmakani, M. & Sadeghian, M., 2020. A nonlocal strain gradient model for nonlinear dynamic behavior of bidirectional functionally graded porous nanoplates on elastic foundations. Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, pp.120.
[24] Akbaş, Ş., Fageehi, Y., Assie, A. & Eltaher, M., 2020. Dynamic analysis of viscoelastic functionally graded porous thick beams under pulse load. Engineering with Computers, pp.113.
[25] Kitipornchai, S., Chen, D. & Yang, J., 2017. Free vibration and elastic buckling of functionally graded porous beams reinforced by graphene platelets. Materials & Design, 116, pp.656665.
[26] Chen, D., Yang, J. & Kitipornchai, S., 2017. Nonlinear vibration and postbuckling of functionally graded graphene reinforced porous nanocomposite beams. Composites Science and Technology, 142, pp.235245.
[27] Yang, J., Chen, D. & Kitipornchai, S., 2018. Buckling and free vibration analyses of functionally graded graphene reinforced porous nanocomposite plates based on chebyshevritz method. Composite Structures, 193, pp.281294.
[28] Polit, O., Anant, C., Anirudh, B. & Ganapathi, M., 2019. Functionally graded graphene reinforced porous nanocomposite curved beams: Bending and elastic stability using a higherorder model with thickness stretch effect. Composites Part B: Engineering, 166, pp.310327.
[29] Li, Q., Wu, D., Chen, X., Liu, L., Yu, Y. & Gao, W., 2018. Nonlinear vibration and dynamic buckling analyses of sandwich functionally graded porous plate with graphene platelet reinforcement resting on winkler–pasternak elastic foundation. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 148, pp.596610.
[30] Esmaeilzadeh, M. & Kadkhodayan, M., 2019. Numerical investigation into dynamic behaviors of axially moving functionally graded porous sandwich nanoplates reinforced with graphene platelets. Materials Research Express, 6 (10), pp.1050b7.
[31] Safarpour, M., Rahimi, A., Alibeigloo, A., Bisheh, H. & Forooghi, A., 2019. Parametric study of threedimensional bending and frequency of fggplrc porous circular and annular plates on different boundary conditions. Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, pp.131.
[32] Rahimi, A., Alibeigloo, A. & Safarpour, M., 2020. Threedimensional static and free vibration analysis of graphene platelet–reinforced porous composite cylindrical shell. Journal of Vibration and Control, 26 (1920), pp.16271645.
[33] Zhao, S., Yang, Z., Kitipornchai, S. & Yang, J., 2020. Dynamic instability of functionally graded porous arches reinforced by graphene platelets. ThinWalled Structures, 147, pp.106491.
[34] Nguyen, L.B., Nguyen, N.V., Thai, C.H., Ferreira, A. & NguyenXuan, H., 2019. An isogeometric bézier finite element analysis for piezoelectric fg porous plates reinforced by graphene platelets. Composite Structures, 214, pp.227245.
[35] Arshid, E., Amir, S. & Loghman, A., 2020. Static and dynamic analyses of fggnps reinforced porous nanocomposite annular microplates based on msgt. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 180, pp.105656.
[36] Gao, W., Qin, Z. & Chu, F., 2020. Wave propagation in functionally graded porous plates reinforced with graphene platelets. Aerospace Science and Technology, 102, pp.105860.
[37] Nejadi, M., Mohammadimehr, M. & Mehrabi, M., 2021. Free vibration and stability analysis of sandwich pipe by considering porosity and graphene platelet effects on conveying fluid flow. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 60 (1), pp.19451954.
[38] Tao, C. & Dai, T., 2021. Isogeometric analysis for postbuckling of sandwich cylindrical shell panels with graphene platelet reinforced functionally graded porous core. Composite Structures, 260, pp.113258.
[39] Khayat, M., Baghlani, A. & Najafgholipour, M., 2021. The propagation of uncertainty in the geometrically nonlinear responses of smart sandwich porous cylindrical shells reinforced with graphene platelets. Composite Structures, 258, pp.113209.
[40] Nguyen, N.V., Lee, J. & NguyenXuan, H., 2019. Active vibration control of gplsreinforced fg metal foam plates with piezoelectric sensor and actuator layers. Composites Part B: Engineering, 172, pp.769784.
[41] Nguyen, N.V., Nguyen, L.B., NguyenXuan, H. & Lee, J., 2020. Analysis and active control of geometrically nonlinear responses of smart fg porous plates with graphene nanoplatelets reinforcement based on bézier extraction of nurbs. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 180, pp.105692.
[42] Nguyen, N.V., NguyenXuan, H., Lee, D. & Lee, J., 2020. A novel computational approach to functionally graded porous plates with graphene platelets reinforcement. ThinWalled Structures, 150, pp.106684.
[43] Nguyen, N.V. & Lee, J., 2021. On the static and dynamic responses of smart piezoelectric functionally graded graphene plateletreinforced microplates. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 197, pp.106310.
[44] Nguyen, N.V., Phan, D.H. & Lee, J., 2022. Nonlinear static and dynamic isogeometric analysis of functionally graded microplates with graphenebased nanofillers reinforcement. Aerospace Science and Technology, 127, pp.107709.
[45] Nguyen, N.V., Phan, D.H. & Lee, J., 2023. On the transient performance of agglomerated graphene plateletsreinforced porous sandwich plates. ThinWalled Structures, 183, pp.110316.
[46] Barati, M.R. & Zenkour, A.M., 2019. Analysis of postbuckling of graded porous gplreinforced beams with geometrical imperfection. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 26 (6), pp.503511.
[47] Gao, K., Gao, W., Chen, D. & Yang, J., 2018. Nonlinear free vibration of functionally graded graphene platelets reinforced porous nanocomposite plates resting on elastic foundation. Composite Structures, 204, pp.831846.
[48] Ansari, R., Hassani, R., Gholami, R. & Rouhi, H., 2020. Nonlinear bending analysis of arbitraryshaped porous nanocomposite plates using a novel numerical approach. International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, 126, pp.103556.
[49] Li, K., Wu, D., Chen, X., Cheng, J., Liu, Z., Gao, W. & Liu, M., 2018. Isogeometric analysis of functionally graded porous plates reinforced by graphene platelets. Composite Structures, 204, pp.114130.
[50] Roberts, A. & Garboczi, E.J., 2002. Computation of the linear elastic properties of random porous materials with a wide variety of microstructure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 458 (2021), pp.10331054.
[51] Dong, Y., Li, Y., Chen, D. & Yang, J., 2018. Vibration characteristics of functionally graded graphene reinforced porous nanocomposite cylindrical shells with spinning motion. Composites Part B: Engineering, 145, pp.113.
[52] Barati, M.R. & Zenkour, A.M., 2019. Vibration analysis of functionally graded graphene platelet reinforced cylindrical shells with different porosity distributions. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 26 (18), pp.15801588.
[53] Nguyen, Q.H., Nguyen, L.B., Nguyen, H.B. & NguyenXuan, H., 2020. A threevariable high order shear deformation theory for isogeometric free vibration, buckling and instability analysis of fg porous plates reinforced by graphene platelets. Composite Structures, 245, pp.112321.
[54] Dastjerdi, S., Abbasi, M. & Yazdanparast, L., 2017. A new modified higherorder shear deformation theory for nonlinear analysis of macroand nanoannular sector plates using the extended kantorovich method in conjunction with sapm. Acta Mechanica, 228 (10), pp.33813401.
[55] Dastjerdi, S. & Abbasi, M., 2020. A new approach for timedependent response of viscoelastic graphene sheets embedded in viscopasternak foundation based on nonlocal fsdt and mhsdt theories. Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials, 24 (3), pp.329361.
[56] Golmakani, M. & Kadkhodayan, M., 2011. Nonlinear bending analysis of annular fgm plates using higherorder shear deformation plate theories. Composite Structures, 93 (2), pp.973982.
[57] RezaieePajand, M., Alamatian, J. & Rezaee, H., 2017. The state of the art in dynamic relaxation methods for structural mechanics part 1: Formulations. Iranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization, 7 (2), pp.6586.
[58] Reddy, J., Wang, C. & Kitipornchai, S., 1999. Axisymmetric bending of functionally graded circular and annular plates. European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, 18 (2), pp.185199.
[59] Eshraghi, I. & Dag, S. 2020. Forced vibrations of functionally graded annular and circular plates by domain‐boundary element method. Wiley Online Library.